Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 310–325 | Cite as

Neuroimmunity of HTLV-I Infection

  • Eiji MatsuuraEmail author
  • Yoshihisa Yamano
  • Steven Jacobson


Human T-lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) is an oncogenic retrovirus and its infection is associated with a variety of human diseases including HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Large numbers of epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical studies on HTLV-I- and HTLV-I-associated diseases have been published, although the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP remains to be fully understood. In the last several years, researchers have shown that several key factors are important in HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease including high HTLV-I proviral load and a strong immune response to HTLV-I. Here, we review pathophysiological findings on HAM/TSP and focus on viral-host immune responses to the virus in HTLV-I infected individuals. In particular, the role of HTLV-I-specific CD8+ T cell response is highlighted.


HTLV HTLV-1 HAM/TSP myelopathy uveitis myositis alveolitis neuropathy cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL proviral load pathology immunology 


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© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eiji Matsuura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshihisa Yamano
    • 1
  • Steven Jacobson
    • 1
  1. 1.Viral Immunology SectionNeuroimmunology Branch, NIHBethesdaUSA

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