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Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 278–293 | Cite as

Innate and Adaptive Factors Regulating Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic Activation

  • Sonia Shah
  • Michael R. Nonnemacher
  • Vanessa Pirrone
  • Brian WigdahlEmail author
INVITED REVIEW

Abstract

Over the past decade, antiretroviral therapy targeting the viral entry process, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, has prolonged the lives of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, despite the development of more effective therapeutic strategies, reservoirs of viral infection remain. This review discusses molecular mechanisms surrounding the development of latency from the site of integration to pre- and post-integration maintenance of latency, including epigenetic factors. In addition, an overview of innate and adaptive cells important to HIV-1 infection are examined from the viewpoint of cytokines released and cytokines that act on these cells to explore an overall understanding of HIV-1 proviral genome activation. Finally, this review is discussed from the viewpoint of how an understanding of the interplay of all of these factors will help guide the next generation of therapies.

Keywords

HIV-1 transcription latency immune factors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

These studies were funded in part by the Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health through grants from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NS32092 and NS46263, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, DA19807 (Dr. Brian Wigdahl, Principal Investigator), and under the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award 5T32MH079785. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Shah
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael R. Nonnemacher
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Vanessa Pirrone
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Brian Wigdahl
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Molecular Virology and Translational NeuroscienceDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Molecular Therapeutics and ResistanceDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious DiseaseDrexel University College of Medicine School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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