Advertisement

Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 404–417 | Cite as

Molecular Regulation of JC Virus Tropism: Insights into Potential Therapeutic Targets for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

  • Leslie J. MarshallEmail author
  • Eugene O. Major
INVITED REVIEW

Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a growing concern for patients undergoing immune modulatory therapies for treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Currently, there are no drugs approved for the treatment of PML that have been demonstrated in the patient to effectively and reproducibly alter the course of disease progression. The human polyoma virus JC is the causative agent of PML. JC virus (JCV) dissemination is tightly controlled by regulation of viral gene expression from the promoter by cellular transcription factors expressed in cells permissive for infection. JCV infection likely occurs during childhood, and latent virus containing PML-associated promoter sequences is maintained in lymphoid cells within the bone marrow. Because development of PML is tightly linked to suppression and or modulation of the immune system as in development of hematological malignancies, AIDS, and monoclonal antibody treatments, further scrutiny of the course of JCV infection in immune cells will be essential to our understanding of development of PML and identification of new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

JC virus progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy virus latency virus tropism molecular regulation host cell–virus interactions 

References

  1. Aksamit AJ (2001) Treatment of non-AIDS progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with cytosine arabinoside. J Neurovirology 7:386–390Google Scholar
  2. Alla P, de Jaureguiberry JP, Gisserot O, Valance J, Jaubert D (2001) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia. Presse Med 30:1498–1499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allander T, Andreasson K, Gupta S, Bjerkner A, Bogdanovic G, Persson MA, Dalianis T, Ramqvist T, Andersson B (2007) Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J Virol 81:4130–4136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Altschuler EL, Kast RE (2005) The atypical antipsychotic agents ziprasidone [correction of zisprasidone], risperdone and olanzapine as treatment for and prophylaxis against progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Med Hypotheses 65:585–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amemiya K, Traub R, Durham L, Major EO (1989) Interaction of a nuclear factor-1-like protein with the regulatory region of the human polyomavirus JC virus. J Biol Chem 264:7025–7032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amemiya K, Traub R, Durham L, Major EO (1992) Adjacent nuclear factor-1 and activator protein binding sites in the enhancer of the neurotropic JC virus. A common characteristic of many brain-specific genes. J Biol Chem 267:14204–14211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Amemiya K, Durham L, Major EO (1994) Overexpression and reactivation of binding activity of the recombinant CTF/NF-1 transcription factor. Protein Expr Purif 5:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Antinori A, De Luca A, Ammassari A, Cingolani A, Murri R, Colosimo G, Roselli R, Scerrati M, Tamburrini E (1994) Failure of cytarabine and increased JC virus-DNA burden in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AIDS-related progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. AIDS 8:1022–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Attout H, Rahmeh F, Lehuede G, Girardel M, Ziegler F (2000) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy an chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rev Med Interne 21:698–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Atwood WJ (2001) A combination of low-dose chlorpromazine and neutralizing antibodies inhibits the spread of JC virus (JCV) in a tissue culture model: implications for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurovirology 7:307–310Google Scholar
  11. Atwood WJ, Amemiya K, Traub R, Harms J, Major EO (1992) Interaction of the human polyomavirus, JCV, with human B-lymphocytes. Virology 190:716–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ault GS, Stoner GL (1993) Human polyomavirus JC promoter/enhancer rearrangement patterns from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy brain are unique derivatives of a single archetypal structure. J Gen Virol 74:1499–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aur JA, Simone JV, Verzosa MS, Hustu HO, Pinkel DP, Barker LF (1978) Leukoencephalopathy in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia receiving preventive central nervous system therapy (author’s transl). Sangre (Barc) 23:1–12Google Scholar
  14. Bagnato F, Pietropoaolo V, Di Taranto C, Lorenzano S, Toni D (2001) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia complicated by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without apparent immunodepression. Eur J Neurol 8:367–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bar-Or A, Calabresi PA, Arnold D, Markowitz C, Shafer S, Kasper LH, Waubant E, Gazda S, Fox RJ, Panzara M et al (2008) Rituximab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 72-week, open-label, phase I trial. Ann Neurol 63:395–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Baum S, Ashok A, Gee G, Dimitrova S, Querbes W, Jordan J, Atwood WJ (2003) Early events in the life cycle of JC virus as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurovirology 9(Suppl 1):32–37Google Scholar
  17. Behar A (1965) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a case of acute lymphatic leukemia. Isr J Med Sci 1:650–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Biogen (2009) Tysabri update, February 2009Google Scholar
  19. Bonig H, Wundes A, Chang KH, Lucas S, Papayannopoulou T (2008) Increased numbers of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells are chronically maintained in patients treated with the CD49d blocking antibody natalizumab. Blood 111:3439–3441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brickelmaier M, Lugovskoy A, Kartikeyan R, Reviriego-Mendoza MM, Allaire N, Simon K, Frisque RJ, Gorelik L (2009) Identification and characterization of mefloquine efficacy against JC virus in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1840–1849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Buckman R, Wiltshaw E (1976) Letter: progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy successfully treated with cytosine arabinoside. Br J Haematol 34:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carson KR, Evens AM, Richey EA, Habermann TM, Focosi D, Seymour JF, Laubach J, Bawn SD, Gordon LI, Winter JN et al (2009) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab therapy in HIV-negative patients: a report of 57 cases from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports project. Blood 113:4834–4840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cather JC, Menter A (2003) Modulating T cell responses for the treatment of psoriasis: a focus on efalizumab. Expert Opin Biol Ther 3:361–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang CF, Gallia GL, Muralidharan V, Chen NN, Zoltick P, Johnson E, Khalili K (1996) Evidence that replication of human neurotropic JC virus DNA in glial cells is regulated by the sequence-specific single-stranded DNA-binding protein Pur alpha. J Virol 70:4150–4156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chapagain ML, Sumibcay L, Gurjav U, Kaufusi PH, Kast RE, Nerurkar VR (2008) Serotonin receptor 2A blocker (risperidone) has no effect on human polyomavirus JC infection of primary human fetal glial cells. J Neurovirology 14:448–454Google Scholar
  26. Chen NN, Khalili K (1995) Transcriptional regulation of human JC polyomavirus promoters by cellular proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha in glial cells. J Virol 69:5843–5848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen NN, Chang CF, Gallia GL, Kerr DA, Johnson EM, Krachmarov CP, Barr SM, Frisque RJ, Bollag B, Khalili K (1995) Cooperative action of cellular proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha with the tumor antigen of the human JC polyomavirus determines their interaction with the viral lytic control element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:1087–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen NN, Kerr D, Chang CF, Honjo T, Khalili K (1997) Evidence for regulation of transcription and replication of the human neurotropic virus JCV genome by the human S(mu)bp-2 protein in glial cells. Gene 185:55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen Y, Bord E, Tompkins T, Miller J, Tan CS, Kinkel RP, Stein MC, Viscidi RP, Ngo LH, Koralnik IJ (2009) Asymptomatic reactivation of JC virus in patients treated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med 361:1067–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chesters PM, Heritage J, McCance DJ (1983) Persistence of DNA sequences of BK virus and JC virus in normal human tissues and in diseased tissues. J Infect Dis 147:676–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cid J, Revilla M, Cervera A, Cervantes F, Munoz E, Ferrer I, Montserrat E (2000) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy following oral fludarabine treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ann Hematol 79:392–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Conomy JP, Beard NS, Matsumoto H, Roessmann U (1974) Cytarabine treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Clinical course and detection of virus-like particles after antiviral chemotherapy. JAMA 229:1313–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Coppo P, Laporte JP, Aoudjhane M, Lebon P, Isnard F, Lesage S, Gorin NC, Najman A (1999) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB5). Bone Marrow Transplant 23:401–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cree BA, Lamb S, Morgan K, Chen A, Waubant E, Genain C (2005) An open label study of the effects of rituximab in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 64:1270–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalianis T, Ramqvist T, Andreasson K, Kean JM, Garcea RL (2009) KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses: a new era for human polyomavirus research. Semin Cancer Biol 19:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Daniel AM, Frisque RJ (1993) Transcription initiation sites of prototype and variant JC virus early and late messenger RNAs. Virology 194:97–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Daniel AM, Swenson JJ, Mayreddy RP, Khalili K, Frisque RJ (1996) Sequences within the early and late promoters of archetype JC virus restrict viral DNA replication and infectivity. Virology 216:90–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De Clercq E (2009) Another ten stories in antiviral drug discovery (part C): “old” and “new” antivirals, strategies, and perspectives. Med Res Rev 29:611–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. de Latour RP, Chaoui D, Bourhis JH, Belhocine R, Park S, Legrand O, Brault P, Rio B, Heshmati F, Assouad S et al (2007) Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells after DHAP regimen with or without rituximab: a large multicenter comparative study in patients with malignant lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 48:897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. De Luca A, Giancola ML, Cingolani A, Ammassari A, Gillini L, Murri R, Antinori A (1999) Clinical and virological monitoring during treatment with intrathecal cytarabine in patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Clin Infect Dis 28:624–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dorries K, ter Meulen V (1983) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: detection of papovavirus JC in kidney tissue. J Med Virol 11:307–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dorries K, Vogel E, Gunther S, Czub S (1994) Infection of human polyomaviruses JC and BK in peripheral blood leukocytes from immunocompetent individuals. Virology 198:59–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Egli A, Infanti L, Dumoulin A, Buser A, Samaridis J, Stebler C, Gosert R, Hirsch HH (2009) Prevalence of polyomavirus BK and JC infection and replication in 400 healthy blood donors. J Infect Dis 199:837–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Elphick GF, Querbes W, Jordan JA, Gee GV, Eash S, Manley K, Dugan A, Stanifer M, Bhatnagar A, Kroeze WK et al (2004) The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells. Science 306:1380–1383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Engelhardt B, Kappos L (2008) Natalizumab: targeting alpha4-integrins in multiple sclerosis. Neurodegener Dis 5:16–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Erselius JR, Jostes B, Hatzopoulos AK, Mosthaf L, Gruss P (1990) Cell-type-specific control elements of the lymphotropic papovavirus enhancer. J Virol 64:1657–1666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fanale MA, Younes A (2007) Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Drugs 67:333–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Farge D, Herve R, Mikol J, Sauvaget F, Ingrand D, Singer B, Ferchal F, Auperin I, Gray F, Sudaka A et al (1994) Simultaneous progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent infection and cerebral parenchymal infiltration during chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia 8:318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS (2008) Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319:1096–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fiers W, Contreras R, Haegemann G, Rogiers R, Van de Voorde A, Van Heuverswyn H, Van Herreweghe J, Volckaert G, Ysebaert M (1978) Complete nucleotide sequence of SV40 DNA. Nature 273:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Flaegstad T, Sundsfjord A, Arthur RR, Pedersen M, Traavik T, Subramani S (1991) Amplification and sequencing of the control regions of BK and JC virus from human urine by polymerase chain reaction. Virology 180:553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Flanagan P, Costello C (1989) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Clin Lab Haematol 11:78–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Frampton JE, Plosker GL (2009) Efalizumab: a review of its use in the management of chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol 10:51–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Freim Wahl SG, Folvik MR, Torp SH (2007) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a lymphoma patient with complete remission after treatment with cytostatics and rituximab: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol 26:68–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Frisque RJ (1983a) Nucleotide sequence of the region encompassing the JC virus origin of DNA replication. J Virol 46:170–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Frisque RJ (1983b) Regulatory sequences and virus–cell interactions of JC virus. Prog Clin Biol Res 105:41–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Frisque RJ, Bream GL, Cannella MT (1984) Human polyomavirus JC virus genome. J Virol 51:458–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ganguly S, Ganguly SB, Biswas K (1995) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a case of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Indian Pediatr 32:684–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Garrels K, Kucharczyk W, Wortzman G, Shandling M (1996) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: clinical and MR response to treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17:597–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Garvey B (2008) Rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune haematological disorders. Br J Haematol 141:149–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gay CT, Bodensteiner JB, Nitschke R, Sexauer C, Wilson D (1989) Reversible treatment-related leukoencephalopathy. J Child Neurol 4:208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gaynor AM, Nissen MD, Whiley DM, Mackay IM, Lambert SB, Wu G, Brennan DC, Storch GA, Sloots TP, Wang D (2007) Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathog 3:e64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. GiaRusso MH, Koeppen AH (1978) Atypical progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and primary cerebral malignant lymphoma. J Neurol Sci 35:391–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldberg SL, Pecora AL, Alter RS, Kroll MS, Rowley SD, Waintraub SE, Imrit K, Preti RA (2002) Unusual viral infections (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and cytomegalovirus disease) after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous blood stem cell rescue and peritransplantation rituximab. Blood 99:1486–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Grillo-Lopez AJ, White CA, Dallaire BK, Varns CL, Shen CD, Wei A, Leonard JE, McClure A, Weaver R, Cairelli S et al (2000) Rituximab: the first monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of lymphoma. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 1:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Grinnell BW, Padgett BL, Walker DL (1983) Distribution of nonintegrated DNA from JC papovavirus in organs of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Infect Dis 147:669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gronostajski RM (2000) Roles of the NFI/CTF gene family in transcription and development. Gene 249:31–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gronostajski RM, Adhya S, Nagata K, Guggenheimer RA, Hurwitz J (1985) Site-specific DNA binding of nuclear factor I: analyses of cellular binding sites. Mol Cell Biol 5:964–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hall CD, Dafni U, Simpson D, Clifford D, Wetherill PE, Cohen B, McArthur J, Hollander H, Yainnoutsos C, Major E et al (1998) Failure of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 243 Team. N Engl J Med 338:1345–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hamadani M, Awan FT (2009) Remission induction, consolidation and novel agents in development for adults with acute myeloid leukaemia. Hematol Oncol 28:3–12Google Scholar
  71. Happe S, Besselmann M, Matheja P, Rickert CH, Schuierer G, Reichelt D, Husstedt IW (1999) Cidofovir (vistide) in therapy of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. Review of the literature and report of 2 cases. Nervenarzt 70:935–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hartung HP (2009) New cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after treatment with natalizumab. Lancet Neurol 8:28–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hasan MM, Taylor P (2005) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 130:808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hauser SL, Waubant E, Arnold DL, Vollmer T, Antel J, Fox RJ, Bar-Or A, Panzara M, Sarkar N, Agarwal S et al (2008) B-cell depletion with rituximab in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 358:676–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Heide W, Kompf D, Reusche E, Bodemer M, Weber T (1995) Failure of cytarabine/interferon therapy in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann Neurol 37:412–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Heikens J, van Berkel W, de Vos RA, van der Avoort HG, Krul MR (1992) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a female patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 136:232–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hennighausen L, Siebenlist U, Danner D, Leder P, Rawlins D, Rosenfeld P, Kelly T Jr (1985) High-affinity binding site for a specific nuclear protein in the human IgM gene. Nature 314:289–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Henson JW (1994) Regulation of the glial-specific JC virus early promoter by the transcription factor Sp1. J Biol Chem 269:1046–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Henson J, Saffer J, Furneaux H (1992) The transcription factor Sp1 binds to the JC virus promoter and is selectively expressed in glial cells in human brain. Ann Neurol 32:72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hofeler H, Popescu O, Gunther B, Schmidt U, Hornung G, Hoffken K, Schmidt CG (1987) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Late complication in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 112:963–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hogan TF, Borden EC, McBain JA, Padgett BL, Walker DL (1980) Human polyomavirus infections with JC virus and BK virus in renal transplant patients. Ann Intern Med 92:373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Horn GV, Bastian FO, Moake JL (1978) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: failure of response to transfer factor and cytarabine. Neurology 28:794–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hou J, Major EO (1998) The efficacy of nucleoside analogs against JC virus multiplication in a persistently infected human fetal brain cell line. J Neurovirology 4:451–456Google Scholar
  84. Houff SA, Major EO, Katz DA, Kufta CV, Sever JL, Pittaluga S, Roberts JR, Gitt J, Saini N, Lux W (1988) Involvement of JC virus-infected mononuclear cells from the bone marrow and spleen in the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med 318:301–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hwang TL, Yung WK, Lee YY, Borit A, Fields WS (1986) High dose Ara-C related leukoencephalopathy. J Neuro-oncol 3:335–339Google Scholar
  86. IDEC B (2008) Biogen IDEC, Inc. Q2 2008 Earnings call transcript. Biogen IDEC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Iida T, Kitamura T, Guo J, Taguchi F, Aso Y, Nagashima K, Yogo Y (1993) Origin of JC polyomavirus variants associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:5062–5065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jacquerioz FA, Croft AM (2009) Drugs for preventing malaria in travellers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Issue 4):Art. No. CD006491Google Scholar
  89. Jensen PN, Major EO (1999) Viral variant nucleotide sequences help expose leukocytic positioning in the JC virus pathway to the CNS. J Leukoc Biol 65:428–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jones R, Kunsman G, Levine B, Smith M, Stahl C (1994) Mefloquine distribution in postmortem cases. Forensic Sci Int 68:29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kenney S, Natarajan V, Salzman NP (1986) Mapping 5’ termini of JC virus late RNA. J Virol 58:216–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kerr D, Chang CF, Chen N, Gallia G, Raj G, Schwartz B, Khalili K (1994) Transcription of a human neurotropic virus promoter in glial cells: effect of YB-1 on expression of the JC virus late gene. J Virol 68:7637–7643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kesari S, Akar S, Saad A, Drappatz J, Koralnik IJ, DeAngelo DJ (2008) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Oncol 26:3804–3807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Khalili K, Khoury G, Brady J (1986) Spacing between simian virus 40 early transcriptional control sequences is important for regulation of early RNA synthesis and gene expression. J Virol 60:935–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kiewe P, Seyfert S, Korper S, Rieger K, Thiel E, Knauf W (2003) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with detection of JC virus in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia parallel to onset of fludarabine therapy. Leuk Lymphoma 44:1815–1818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kim J, Woolridge S, Biffi R, Borghi E, Lassak A, Ferrante P, Amini S, Khalili K, Safak M (2003) Members of the AP-1 family, c-Jun and c-Fos, functionally interact with JC virus early regulatory protein large T antigen. J Virol 77:5241–5252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kim SY, Choi EC, Woo Jo Y, Henson JW, Kim HS (2004) Transcriptional activation of JC virus early promoter by phorbol ester and interleukin-1beta: critical role of nuclear factor-1. Virology 327:60–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kim SY, Kim DH, Hyun JW, Henson JW, Kim HS (2006) Irisolidone, an isoflavone metabolite, represses JC virus gene expression via inhibition of Sp1 binding in human glial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Tyler KL (2005) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy complicating treatment with natalizumab and interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 353:369–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Krebs CJ, McAvoy MT, Kumar G (1995) The JC virus minimal core promoter is glial cell specific in vivo. J Virol 69:2434–2442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Krumbholz M, Meinl I, Kumpfel T, Hohlfeld R, Meinl E (2008) Natalizumab disproportionately increases circulating pre-B and B cells in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 71:1350–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kumar KU, Pater A, Pater MM (1993) Human JC virus perfect palindromic nuclear factor 1-binding sequences important for glial cell-specific expression in differentiating embryonal carcinoma cells. J Virol 67:572–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kumar KU, Devireddy LR, Tang SC, Pater A, Pater MM (1996) Human JC virus nuclear factor 1 binding motifs and large tumor antigen region required for transactivation of late promoter. J Neurochem 67:473–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Langer-Gould A, Atlas SW, Green AJ, Bollen AW, Pelletier D (2005) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med 353:375–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Law MF, Martin JD, Takemoto KK, Howley PM (1979) The colinear alignment of the genomes of papovaviruses JC, BK, and SV40. Virology 96:576–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Leandro MJ, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein MR, Edwards JC (2006) Reconstitution of peripheral blood B cells after depletion with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54:613–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Leegwater PA, Van Driel W, van der Vliet PC (1985) Recognition site of nuclear factor I, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein from HeLa cells that stimulates adenovirus DNA replication. EMBO J 4:1515–1521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Leger H, Sock E, Renner K, Grummt F, Wegner M (1995) Functional interaction between the POU domain protein Tst-1/Oct-6 and the high-mobility-group protein HMG-I/Y. Mol Cell Biol 15:3738–3747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Leonard S, Hulin C, Anxionnat R, Grignon Y, Taillandier L, Vespignani H (2002) Multifocal progressive leukoencephalitis in a patient given fludarabine for chronic lymphoid leukemia. Rev Neurol (Paris) 158:1121–1123Google Scholar
  110. Levy RM, Major E, Ali MJ, Cohen B, Groothius D (2001) Convection-enhanced intraparenchymal delivery (CEID) of cytosine arabinoside (AraC) for the treatment of HIV-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). J Neurovirology 7:382–385Google Scholar
  111. Linda H, von Heijne A, Major EO, Ryschkewitsch C, Berg J, Olsson T, Martin C (2009) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab monotherapy. N Engl J Med 361:1081–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lindberg RL, Achtnichts L, Hoffmann F, Kuhle J, Kappos L (2008) Natalizumab alters transcriptional expression profiles of blood cell subpopulations of multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol 194:153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Linker RA, Kieseier BC, Gold R (2008) Identification and development of new therapeutics for multiple sclerosis. Trends Pharmacol Sci 29:558–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Liu CK, Wei G, Atwood WJ (1998) Infection of glial cells by the human polyomavirus JC is mediated by an N-linked glycoprotein containing terminal alpha(2-6)-linked sialic acids. J Virol 72:4643–4649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Loeber G, Dorries K (1988) DNA rearrangements in organ-specific variants of polyomavirus JC strain GS. J Virol 62:1730–1735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Major EO (2009) Reemergence of PML in natalizumab-treated patients—new cases, same concerns. N Engl J Med 361:1041–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Major EO (2010) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients on immunomodulatory therapies. Annu Rev Med 61:8.1–8.13Google Scholar
  118. Major EO, Amemiya K, Elder G, Houff SA (1990) Glial cells of the human developing brain and B cells of the immune system share a common DNA binding factor for recognition of the regulatory sequences of the human polyomavirus, JCV. J Neurosci Res 27:461–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Malkoun I, Vidry E, Revenco E, Drobacheff MC, Berger E, Rumbach L (2006) Role of immunity in the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a report of three patients with type B lymphoma and humoral immunodeficiency and six others with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Rev Neurol (Paris) 162:82–88Google Scholar
  120. Maloney DG, Grillo-Lopez AJ, White CA, Bodkin D, Schilder RJ, Neidhart JA, Janakiraman N, Foon KA, Liles TM, Dallaire BK et al (1997) IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with relapsed low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 90:2188–2195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Manley K, O’Hara BA, Gee GV, Simkevich CP, Sedivy JM, Atwood WJ (2006) NFAT4 is required for JC virus infection of glial cells. J Virol 80:12079–12085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Marriott PJ, O’Brien MD, Mackenzie IC, Janota I (1975) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: remission with cytarabine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38:205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Marshall LJ, Ryschkewitsch C, Jensen PN, Major EO (2009) Acquisition of unique Spi-B binding sites in the JC virus promoter: a potential susceptibility factor for development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Presented at Am Soc Virol Annu Meet, 28th, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  124. Martin JD, King DM, Slauch JM, Frisque RJ (1985) Differences in regulatory sequences of naturally occurring JC virus variants. J Virol 53:306–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Marzocchetti A, Wuthrich C, Tan CS, Tompkins T, Bernal-Cano F, Bhargava P, Ropper AH, Koralnik IJ (2008) Rearrangement of the JC virus regulatory region sequence in the bone marrow of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurovirology 14:455–458Google Scholar
  126. Mata MI, Gardella S, del Mar CM, Ortiz MR (2000) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia treated with fludarabine. Med Clin (Barc) 115:598–599Google Scholar
  127. Matsuo T, Kyoraku I, Shiomi K, Sugimoto S, Zheng HY, Nakazato M (2007) Detection of novel rearrangement of the JC virus gene in a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with adult T-cell leukemia. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 47:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mayreddy RP, Safak M, Razmara M, Zoltick P, Khalili K (1996) Transcription of the JC virus archetype late genome: importance of the kappa B and the 23-base-pair motifs in late promoter activity in glial cells. J Virol 70:2387–2393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Messam CA, Hou J, Gronostajski RM, Major EO (2003) Lineage pathway of human brain progenitor cells identified by JC virus susceptibility. Ann Neurol 53:636–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Mischitelli M, Fioriti D, Videtta M, Degener AM, Antinori A, Cinque P, Giordano A, Pietropaolo V (2005) Investigation on the role of cell transcriptional factor Sp1 and HIV-1 TAT protein in PML onset or development. J Cell Physiol 204:913–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Monaco MC, Major EO (2009) Culture of human fetal brain progenitor derived oligodendrocytes. National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  132. Monaco MC, Atwood WJ, Gravell M, Tornatore CS, Major EO (1996) JC virus infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells, primary B lymphocytes, and tonsillar stromal cells: implications for viral latency. J Virol 70:7004–7012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Monaco MC, Jensen PN, Hou J, Durham LC, Major EO (1998) Detection of JC virus DNA in human tonsil tissue: evidence for site of initial viral infection. J Virol 72:9918–9923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Monaco MC, Sabath BF, Durham LC, Major EO (2001) JC virus multiplication in human hematopoietic progenitor cells requires the NF-1 class D transcription factor. J Virol 75:9687–9695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Monson NL, Cravens PD, Frohman EM, Hawker K, Racke MK (2005) Effect of rituximab on the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid B cells in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 62:258–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Moreno S, Miralles P, Diaz MD, Berenguer J, Bernaldo de Quiros JC, Blazquez R, Cosin J, Bouza E (1996) Cytarabine therapy for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 23:1066–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Neff RT, Hurst FP, Falta EM, Bohen EM, Lentine KL, Dharnidharka VR, Agodoa LY, Jindal RM, Yuan CM, Abbott KC (2008) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and use of mycophenolate mofetil after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 86:1474–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Nicoli F, Chave B, Peragut JC, Gastaut JL (1992) Efficacy of cytarabine in progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in AIDS. Lancet 339:306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Nowak-Michalska T, Barcikowska M, Kida E, Budka H, Liberski PP (1993) A case of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy during chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Neurol Neurochir Pol 27:905–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Nowock J, Borgmeyer U, Puschel AW, Rupp RA, Sippel AE (1985) The TGGCA protein binds to the MMTV-LTR, the adenovirus origin of replication, and the BK virus enhancer. Nucleic Acids Res 13:2045–2061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. O’Riordan T, Daly PA, Hutchinson M, Shattock AG, Gardner SD (1990) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-remission with cytarabine. J Infect 20:51–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Pelosini M, Focosi D, Rita F, Galimberti S, Caracciolo F, Benedetti E, Papineschi F, Petrini M (2008) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: report of three cases in HIV-negative hematological patients and review of literature. Ann Hematol 87:405–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Pettersson M, Schaffner W (1987) A purine-rich DNA sequence motif present in SV40 and lymphotropic papovavirus binds a 1ymphoid-specific factor and contributes to enhancer activity in 1ymphoid ce11s. Genes Dev 1:962–972Google Scholar
  144. Pham YT, Nosten F, Farinotti R, White NJ, Gimenez F (1999) Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers in fatal cerebral malaria. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 37:58–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Pina-Oviedo S, Khalili K, Del Valle L (2009) Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha activation of the JCV promoter: role in the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Acta Neuropathol 118:235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Pohlmann C, Hochauf K, Rollig C, Schetelig J, Wunderlich O, Bandt D, Ehninger G, Jacobs E, Rohayem J (2007) Chlorpromazine combined with cidofovir for treatment of a patient suffering from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Intervirology 50:412–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Portegies P, Algra PR, Hollak CE, Prins JM, Reiss P, Valk J, Lange JM (1991) Response to cytarabine in progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in AIDS. Lancet 337:680–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Przepiorka D, Jaeckle KA, Birdwell RR, Fuller GN, Kumar AJ, Huh YO, McCutcheon I (1997) Successful treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with low-dose interleukin-2. Bone Marrow Transplant 20:983–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Ramos-Casals M, Soto MJ, Cuadrado MJ, Khamashta MA (2009) Rituximab in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of off-label use in 188 cases. Lupus 18:767–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rand KH, Johnson KP, Rubinstein LJ, Wolinsky JS, Penney JB, Walker DL, Padgett BL, Merigan TC (1977) Adenine arabinoside in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: use of virus-containing cells in the urine to assess response to therapy. Ann Neurol 1:458–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Ranganathan PN, Khalili K (1993) The transcriptional enhancer element, kappa B, regulates promoter activity of the human neurotropic virus, JCV, in cells derived from the CNS. Nucleic Acids Res 21:1959–1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ravichandran V, Major EO (2008) DNA-binding transcription factor NF-1A negatively regulates JC virus multiplication. J Gen Virol 89:1396–1401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ravichandran V, Sabath BF, Jensen PN, Houff SA, Major EO (2006) Interactions between c-Jun, nuclear factor 1, and JC virus promoter sequences: implications for viral tropism. J Virol 80:10506–10513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Reddy VB, Thimmappaya B, Dhar R, Subramanian KN, Zain BS, Pan J, Ghosh PK, Celma ML, Weissman SM (1978) The genome of simian virus 40. Science 200:494–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Renner K, Sock E, Bermingham JR Jr, Wegner M (1996a) Expression of the gene for the POU domain transcription factor Tst-1/Oct6 is regulated by an estrogen-dependent enhancer. Nucleic Acids Res 24:4552–4557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Renner K, Sock E, Gerber JK, Wegner M (1996b) T antigen of human papovavirus JC stimulates transcription of the POU domain factor Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. DNA Cell Biol 15:1057–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rice GP, Hartung HP, Calabresi PA (2005) Anti-alpha4 integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis: mechanisms and rationale. Neurology 64:1336–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Robb J, Chalmers L, Rojiani A, Chamberlain M (2006) Multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy: an unusual complication of acute leukemia. Arch Neurol 63:1028–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Roll P, Palanichamy A, Kneitz C, Dorner T, Tony HP (2006) Regeneration of B cell subsets after transient B cell depletion using anti-CD20 antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54:2377–2386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Roll P, Dorner T, Tony HP (2008) Anti-CD20 therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: predictors of response and B cell subset regeneration after repeated treatment. Arthritis Rheum 58:1566–1575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Romagnoli L, Sariyer IK, Tung J, Feliciano M, Sawaya BE, Del Valle L, Ferrante P, Khalili K, Safak M, White MK (2008) Early growth response-1 protein is induced by JC virus infection and binds and regulates the JC virus promoter. Virology 375:331–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Romagnoli L, Wollebo HS, Deshmane SL, Mukerjee R, Del Valle L, Safak M, Khalili K, White MK (2009) Modulation of JC virus transcription by C/EBPbeta. Virus Res 146:97–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Rommer PS, Stuve O, Goertsches R, Mix E, Zettl UK (2008) Monoclonal antibodies in the therapy of multiple sclerosis: an overview. J Neurol 255(Suppl 6):28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Sadowska B, Barrucco R, Khalili K, Safak M (2003) Regulation of human polyomavirus JC virus gene transcription by AP-1 in glial cells. J Virol 77:665–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Safak M, Khalili K (2001) Physical and functional interaction between viral and cellular proteins modulate JCV gene transcription. J Neurovirology 7:288–292Google Scholar
  166. Safak M, Gallia GL, Ansari SA, Khalili K (1999) Physical and functional interaction between the Y-box binding protein YB-1 and human polyomavirus JC virus large T antigen. J Virol 73:10146–10157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Safak M, Sadowska B, Barrucco R, Khalili K (2002) Functional interaction between JC virus late regulatory agnoprotein and cellular Y-box binding transcription factor, YB-1. J Virol 76:3828–3838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Saumoy M, Castells G, Escoda L, Mares R, Richart C, Ugarriza A (2002) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia after treatment with fludarabine. Leuk Lymphoma 43:433–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Schaumburg C, O’Hara BA, Lane TE, Atwood WJ (2008) Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells express the serotonin receptor and are susceptible to JC virus infection. J Virol 82:8896–8899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Schneider EM, Dorries K (1993) High frequency of polyomavirus infection in lymphoid cell preparations after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transplant Proc 25:1271–1273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Schon MP (2008) Efalizumab in the treatment of psoriasis: mode of action, clinical indications, efficacy, and safety. Clin Dermatol 26:509–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Schuna AA (2007) Rituximab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacotherapy 27:1702–1710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Seif I, Khoury G, Dhar R (1979) The genome of human papovavirus BKV. Cell 18:963–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Seong D, Bruner JM, Lee KH, Mirza N, Kwon BD, Lee JH, Lee YY, Ro J, Talpaz M, Champlin R et al (1996) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after autologous bone marrow transplantation in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clin Infect Dis 23:402–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Seth P, Diaz F, Tao-Cheng JH, Major EO (2004) JC virus induces nonapoptotic cell death of human central nervous system progenitor cell-derived astrocytes. J Virol 78:4884–4891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sharma AK, Kumar G (1991) A 53 kDa protein binds to the negative regulatory region of JC virus early promoter. FEBS Lett 281:272–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Shinohara T, Nagashima K, Major EO (1997) Propagation of the human polyomavirus, JCV, in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Virology 228:269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Shivakumar CV, Das GC (1994) Biochemical and mutational analysis of the polyomavirus core promoter: involvement of nuclear factor-1 in early promoter function. J Gen Virol 75(Pt 6):1281–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Singer EJ, Stoner GL, Singer P, Tomiyasu U, Licht E, Fahy-Chandon B, Tourtellotte WW (1994) AIDS presenting as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with clinical response to zidovudine. Acta Neurol Scand 90:443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Smith CR, Sima AA, Salit IE, Gentili F (1982) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: failure of cytarabine therapy. Neurology 32:200–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Sobell JM, Weinberg JM (2009) Patient fatalities potentially associated with efalizumab use. J Drugs Dermatol 8:215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sock E, Enderich J, Wegner M (1999) The J domain of papovaviral large tumor antigen is required for synergistic interaction with the POU-domain protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. Mol Cell Biol 19:2455–2464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Soulas-Sprauel P, Rivera-Munoz P, Malivert L, Le Guyader G, Abramowski V, Revy P, de Villartay JP (2007) V(D)J and immunoglobulin class switch recombinations: a paradigm to study the regulation of DNA end-joining. Oncogene 26:7780–7791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Steiger MJ, Tarnesby G, Gabe S, McLaughlin J, Schapira AH (1993) Successful outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with cytarabine and interferon. Ann Neurol 33:407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Stieglbauer K, Topakian R, Schaffer V, Aichner FT (2009) Rituximab for myasthenia gravis: three case reports and review of the literature. J Neurol Sci 280:120–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Sumner C, Shinohara T, Durham L, Traub R, Major EO, Amemiya K (1996) Expression of multiple classes of the nuclear factor-1 family in the developing human brain: differential expression of two classes of NF-1 genes. J Neurovirology 2:87–100Google Scholar
  187. Sunden Y, Semba S, Suzuki T, Okada Y, Orba Y, Nagashima K, Umemura T, Sawa H (2007a) DDX1 promotes proliferation of the JC virus through transactivation of its promoter. Microbiol Immunol 51:339–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sunden Y, Semba S, Suzuki T, Okada Y, Orba Y, Nagashima K, Umemura T, Sawa H (2007b) Identification of DDX1 as a JC virus transcriptional control region-binding protein. Microbiol Immunol 51:327–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Swamy PA, Nardino R (2003) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Conn Med 67:263–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tada H, Khalili K (1992) A novel sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, LCP-1, interacts with single-stranded DNA and differentially regulates early gene expression of the human neurotropic JC virus. J Virol 66:6885–6892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tamura T, Inoue T, Nagata K, Mikoshiba K (1988) Enhancer of human polyoma JC virus contains nuclear factor I-binding sequences; analysis using mouse brain nuclear extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 157:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Tan C, Dezube B, Bhargava P, Autissier P, Wuthrich C, Miller J, Koralnik IJ (2009) Detection of JC virus DNA and proteins in the bone marrow of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients: implications for viral latency and neurotropic transformation. J Infect Dis 199:881–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Tashiro K, Doi S, Moriwaka F, Maruo Y, Nomura M (1987) Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy with magnetic resonance imaging verification and therapeutic trials with interferon. J Neurol 234:427–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Terrier B, Hummel A, Fakhouri F, Jablonski M, Hugle T, Gasnault J, Sanson M, Martinez F (2007) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a non-AIDS patient: high efficiency of combined cytarabine and cidofovir. Rev Med Interne 28:488–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Toovey S (2009) Mefloquine neurotoxicity: a literature review. Travel Med Infect Dis 7:2–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Tornatore C, Berger JR, Houff SA, Curfman B, Meyers K, Winfield D, Major EO (1992) Detection of JC virus DNA in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Ann Neurol 31:454–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Tubridy N, Wells C, Lewis D, Schon F (2000) Unsuccessful treatment with cidofovir and cytarabine in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with dermatomyositis. J R Soc Med 93:374–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Vacante DA, Traub R, Major EO (1989) Extension of JC virus host range to monkey cells by insertion of a simian virus 40 enhancer into the JC virus regulatory region. Virology 170:353–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Van Assche G, Van Ranst M, Sciot R, Dubois B, Vermeire S, Noman M, Verbeeck J, Geboes K, Robberecht W, Rutgeerts P (2005) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab therapy for Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 353:362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Vaz B, Cinque P, Pickhardt M, Weber T (2000) Analysis of the transcriptional control region in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neurovirology 6:398–409Google Scholar
  201. Vulliemoz S, Lurati-Ruiz F, Borruat FX, Delavelle J, Koralnik IJ, Kuntzer T, Bogousslavsky J, Picard F, Landis T, Du Pasquier RA (2006) Favourable outcome of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in two patients with dermatomyositis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:1079–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Wenning W, Haghikia A, Laubenberger J, Clifford DB, Behrens PF, Chan A, Gold R (2009) Treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med 361:1075–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. White MK, Johnson EM, Khalili K (2009) Multiple roles for Puralpha in cellular and viral regulation. Cell Cycle 8:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Wingerchuk DM, Weinshenker BG (2005) Neuromyelitis optica. Curr Treat Options Neurol 7:173–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Yamamoto M, Kaneko K, Ohta K, Ogura Y, Ueda Y, Tazima M, Takeda F (1987) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Rinsho Ketsueki 28:541–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Yang RC, Wu R (1979) Comparative study of papovavirus DNA: BKV(MM), BKV(WT) and SV40. Nucleic Acids Res 7:651–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Yogo Y, Kitamura T, Sugimoto C, Ueki T, Aso Y, Hara K, Taguchi F (1990) Isolation of a possible archetypal JC virus DNA sequence from nonimmunocompromised individuals. J Virol 64:3139–3143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Yokoyama H, Watanabe T, Maruyama D, Kim SW, Kobayashi Y, Tobinai K (2008) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with B-cell lymphoma during rituximab-containing chemotherapy: case report and review of the literature. Int J Hematol 88:443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Zohren F, Toutzaris D, Klarner V, Hartung HP, Kieseier B, Haas R (2008) The monoclonal anti-VLA-4 antibody natalizumab mobilizes CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells in humans. Blood 111:3893–3895PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, Molecular Medicine and Virology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations