Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8.
Al Jarrah, F. N., Hamdan, F. R., Hamdan, M. R., Fraihat, A., & Alazzam, A. A. (2019). The level of optimism and pessimism and its relationship to the quality of life in patients with renal failure in the government and private hospitals in Irbid. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 11(2), 9–23.
Andersson, G. (1996). The benefits of optimism: a meta-analytic review of the Life Orientation Test. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(5), 719–725.
Anniko, M. K., Boersma, K., & Tillfors, M. (2019). Sources of stress and worry in the development of stress-related mental health problems: a longitudinal investigation from early-to mid-adolescence. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 32(2), 155–167.
Arslan, G., & Allen, K. (2020). Exploring the association between coronavirus stress, meaning in life, psychological flexibility, and subjective well-being. Submitted for publication.
Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2020). Coronavirus stress, meaningful living, optimism, and depressive symptoms: A study of moderated mediation model. Submitted for publication.
Bao, Y., Sun, Y., Meng, S., Shi, J., & Lu, L. (2020). 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society. The Lancet, 395(10224), e37–e38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3.
Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, A. Y. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in battered women: the mediating role of learned helplessness. Journal of Family Violence, 22(5), 267–275.
Bhuiyan, A. K. M. I., Sakib, N., Pakpour, A. H., Griffiths, M. D., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). COVID-19-related suicides in Bangladesh due to lockdown and economic factors: case study evidence from media reports. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00307-y.
Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., Baer, R. A., Carpenter, K. C., Guenole, N., Orcutt, H. K., Waltz, T., & Zettle, R. D. (2011). Preliminary psychometric properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II: a revised measure of psychological flexibility and acceptance. Behavior Therapy, 42, 676–688.
Britton, M., LaLonde, L., Oshio, A., & Taku, K. (2019). Relationships among optimism, pessimism, and posttraumatic growth in the US and Japan: focusing on varying patterns of perceived stressfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109513.
Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8.
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006.
Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affectivity in middle-aged adults: a test of a cognitive-affective model of psychological adjustment. Psychology and Aging, 16(3), 524–531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-79220.127.116.114.
Chen, Q., Liang, M., Li, Y., Guo, J., Fei, D., Wang, L., He, L., Sheng, C., Cai, Y., Li, X., Wang, J., & Zhang, Z. (2020). Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), e15–e16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078-X.
Çiçek, I., Tanhan, A., Bulus, M., & Arslan, G. (2020). Psychological inflexibility predicts depression and anxiety during COVID-19: acceptance and commitment therapy perspective. Submitted for publication.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–396.
Cortese, S., Asherson, P., Sonuga-Barke, E., Banaschewski, T., Brandeis, D., Buitelaar, J., Coghill, D., Daley, D., Danckaerts, M., Dittmann, R. W., Doepfner, M., Ferrin, M., Hollis, C., Holtman, M., Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., Santosh, P., Rothenberger, A., Soutullo, C., Steinhausen, H. C., Taylor, E., Van der Oord, S., & Zuddas, A. (2020). ADHD management during the COVID-19 pandemic: guidance from the European ADHD Guidelines Group. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health., 4, 412–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30110-3.
Crosby, J. M., Bates, S. C., & Twohig, M. P. (2011). Examination of the relationship between perfectionism and religiosity as mediated by psychological inflexibility. Current Psychology, 30(2), 117–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-011-9104-3.
D’Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A., & D’Agostino, R. B. (1990). A suggestion for using powerful and informative tests of normality. The American Statistician, 44(4), 316–321.
Derogatis, L. R., & Fitzpatrick, M. (2004). The SCL-90-R, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the BSI-18. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Instruments for adults, vol 3, 3rd ed. (pp. 1–41). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Dick, A. M., Niles, B. L., Street, A. E., DiMartino, D. M., & Mitchell, K. S. (2014). Examining mechanisms of change in a yoga intervention for women: the influence of mindfulness, psychological flexibility, and emotion regulation on PTSD symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(12), 1170–1182.
Duy, B., & Yildiz, M. A. (2017). The mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between optimism and subjective well-being. Current Psychology, 36(3), 410–416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9698-1.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage publications.
Gallagher, M. W., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Positive expectancies and mental health: identifying the unique contributions of hope and optimism. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 548–556.
Gaudiano, B. A., Schofield, C. A., Davis, C., & Rifkin, L. S. (2017). Psychological inflexibility as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptom severity and public stigma in depression. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 6(2), 159–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2017.04.010.
Gunnell, D., Appleby, L., Arensman, E., Hawton, K., John, A., Kapur, N., Khan, M., O’Connor, R. C., Pirkis, J., & COVID-19 Suicide Prevention Research Collaboration. (2020). Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Psychiatry., 7, 468–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30171-1.
Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2020). Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00281-5.
Harris, R. (2009). ACT made simple: an easy-to-read primer on acceptance and commitment therapy. New Harbinger: Publications.
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25.
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: the process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). NewYork: The Guilford Press.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
Ingram, R. E., & Luxton, D. D. (2005). Vulnerability-stress models. Development of psychopathology: A vulnerability-stress perspective, 32–46.
Karademas, E. C. (2006). Self-efficacy, social support and well-being: the mediating role of optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(6), 1281–1290.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
Kurz, A. S., Bethay, J. S., & Ladner-Graham, J. M. (2014). Mediating the relation between workplace stressors and distress in ID support staff: comparison between the roles of psychological inflexibility and coping styles. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(10), 2359–2370.
Kwok, S. Y., & Gu, M. (2017). The role of emotional competence in the association between optimism and depression among Chinese adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 10(1), 171–185.
Larson, R. W. (2011). Positive development in a disorderly world. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 317–334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00707.x.
Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies. Advance online publicaion. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1748481.
Levens, S. M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2012). The effects of optimism and pessimism on updating emotional information in working memory. Cognition & Emotion, 26(2), 341–350.
Levin, M. E., MacLane, C., Daflos, S., Seeley, J. R., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, A., & Pistorello, J. (2014). Examining psychological inflexibility as a transdiagnostic process across psychological disorders. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(3), 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.06.003.
Liu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, C., Xiang, Y. T., Liu, Z., Hu, S., & Zhang, B. (2020). Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), e17–e18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-8.
Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: possible suicide prevention strategies. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102073.
Masuda, A., & Latzman, R. D. (2011). Examining associations among factor-analytically derived components of mental health stigma, distress, and psychological flexibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(4), 435–438.
Masuda, A., & Tully, E. C. (2012). The role of mindfulness and psychological flexibility in somatization, depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress in a nonclinical college sample. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 66–71.
Mendoza, H., Goodnight, B. L., Caporino, N. E., & Masuda, A. (2018). Psychological distress among Latina/o college students: the roles of self-concealment and psychological inflexibility. Current Psychology, 37(1), 172–179.
Nes, L. S. (2016). Optimism, pessimism, and stress. In G. Fink (Ed.), Stress: Concepts, cognition, emotion, and behavior (pp. 405–411). Elsevier Academic Press.
Nes, L. S., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2006). Dispositional optimism and coping: a meta-analytic review. Personality and Ssocial Ppsychology Rreview, 10(3), 235–251.
Peterson, C., & Chang, E. C. (2003). Optimism and flourishing. In C. L. M. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived (pp. 55–79). American Psychological Association.
Praharso, N. F., Tear, M. J., & Cruwys, T. (2017). Stressful life transitions and wellbeing: a comparison of the stress-buffering hypothesis and the social identity model of identity change. Psychiatry Research, 247, 265–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.11.039.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.
Reed, D. J. (2016). Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 9, 71–79. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S97595.
Revelle, W. (2019). Ppsych: procedures for psychological, psychometric, and personality research. Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. R package version 1.9.12. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psych.
Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36.
Sapmaz, F., & Doğan, T. (2012). Mutluluk ve yaşam doyumunun yordayıcısı olarak iyimserlik. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 8(3), 63–69.
Satici, B., Saricali, M., Satici, S. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty and mental wellbeing: serial mediation by rumination and fear of COVID-19. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00305-0.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219–247. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16(2), 201–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173489.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063–1107.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being, C. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), (pp. 189–216). American Psychological Association.
Tanhan, A. (2019). Acceptance and commitment therapy with ecological systems theory: addressing Muslim mental health issues and wellbeing. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 3(2), 197–219.
Tanhan, A., Yavuz K. F., Young, J. S., Nalbant, A., Arslan, G., Yıldırım, M., Ulusoy, S., Genç, E., Uğur, E., & Çiçek, İ. (2020). A proposed framework based on literature review of online contextual mental health services to enhance wellbeing and address psychopathology during COVID-19. Electronic Journal of General Medicine.
Tavakoli, N., Broyles, A., Reid, E. K., Sandoval, J. R., & Correa-Fernández, V. (2019). Psychological inflexibility as it relates to stress, worry, generalized anxiety, and somatization in an ethnically diverse sample of college students. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 11, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2018.11.001.
Taylor, S. E., & Armor, D. A. (1996). Positive illusions and coping with adversity. Journal of Personality, 64(4), 873–898.
Taylor, S., Landry, C., Paluszek, M., Fergus, T. A., McKay, D., & Asmundson, G. J. (2020). Development and initial validation of the COVID stress scales. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 102232, 102232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102232.
Towsyfyan, N., & Hossein Sabet, F. (2017). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on the improving of resilience and optimism in adolescents with major depressive disorder. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 7(3), 239–245.
Turkish Ministry of Health (2020). Türkiye’deki güncel durum. https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/.
Uğur, E., Kaya, Ç., & Tanhan, A. (2020). Psychological inflexibility mediates the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and psychological vulnerability. Submitted for publication.
Vickers, K. S., & Vogeltanz, N. D. (2000). Dispositional optimism as a predictor of depressive symptoms over time. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(2), 259–272.
Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729.
Woldgabreal, Y., Day, A., & Ward, T. (2016). Linking positive psychology to offender supervision outcomes: the mediating role of psychological flexibility, general self-efficacy, optimism, and hope. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(6), 697–721. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854815620816.
Woodruff, S. C., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B., Crowley, K. J., Hindman, R. K., & Hirschhorn, E. W. (2014). Comparing self-compassion, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility as predictors of psychological health. Mindfulness, 5(4), 410–421.
World Health Organization. (2020). Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance.
Yadavaia, J. E., Hayes, S. C., & Vilardaga, R. (2014). Using acceptance and commitment therapy to increase self-compassion: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(4), 248–257.
Yao, H., Chen, J. H., & Xu, Y. F. (2020). Rethinking online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 102015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102015.
Yavuz, F., Ulusoy, S., Iskin, M., Esen, F. B., Burhan, H. S., Karadere, M. E., & Yavuz, N. (2016). Turkish version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II): A reliability and validity analysis in clinical and non-clinical samples. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni-Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(4), 397–408.
Yildirim, M., & Alanazi, Z. S. (2018). Gratitude and life satisfaction: mediating role of perceived stress. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 10(3), 21–28.
Yildirim, M., & Arslan, G. (2020). Exploring the associations between resilience, dispositional hope, subjective well-being, and psychological health among adults during early stage of COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vpu5q.
Yıldırım, M., & Güler (2020). Development and initial validation of the coronavirus perceived risk scale and its relationship with mental health.
Zandifar, A., & Badrfam, R. (2020). Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 101990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101990.