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From Model to Case: Implementation, Follow-Up, and Evaluation of a Permanent School Prevention Program

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This article describes the prevention model Creciendo Juntos [Growing up Together], its theoretical framework, characteristics and methodological approach, and the population groups in which it has been implemented and results obtained. It then focuses on the implementation, beginning in 2013, of a school prevention program based upon this model that covered a whole school community. After 4 years, the process, results, and impact were evaluated, and the data are presented here. Process evaluation was developed through observations of the development of the program on the premises and in school groups. Interviews of school authorities, teachers, and facilitators were also conducted. The impact evaluation was conducted by means of a trend study, developed using two samples. In the 2014 baseline, randomly selected students participated as the experimental group. The data obtained in a Mexico City survey were considered part of the control group. In 2017, a second application was performed, which used the validated data from epidemiological research on students in the same geographical area as the control group. The process evaluation showed that the program guidelines had been incorporated as part of the school identity, and the guidelines provided were followed. The impact evaluation evidenced favorable modification of drug use: a decrease of more than 30% in tobacco use in the past year and problems associated with alcohol use in all age groups, and a decrease of 25% in marijuana use in the past year. The evaluation process developed supports the implementation of the Creciendo Juntos model and underlines the importance of its flexibility and the possibility for adaptation of guidelines and procedures to the specific situation of each community.

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  1. For further information on the Creciendo Juntos model, see www.creceac/about

  2. Manual and report on the results of Sigamos creciendo are found in

  3. For further information on preventive programs, see

  4. Those experiences are described in

  5. “The systematic collection and analysis of process data to understand why outcomes were (not) achieved and how the programme can be improved in the future… can also demonstrate that fidelity was upheld.” (Brotherhood and Sumnall 2011, 266)

  6. “… outcome or summative evaluation that refers more generally to the end results of an intervention (as also described by Weiss, 98; Chen, 1990) and which relaxes the proof of causality requirement.” (Linde 2006, 6)

  7. “Impact evaluations are a particular type of evaluation that seeks to answer a specific cause-and-effect question: What is the impact (or causal effect) of a program on an outcome of interest? This basic question incorporates an important causal dimension. The focus is only on the impact: that is, the changes directly attributable to a program, program modality, or design innovation.” (Gertler, et al., 2016, 7)

  8. For further information on those programs, consult


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Correspondence to Carmen Millé.

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Ethical Considerations

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. The authors have shared this article with the General Director of Colegio Madrid, who provided written consent for its publication.

Conflict of Interests

Authors Carmen Millé, Angélica Juárez, and Alberto Jiménez declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Millé, C., Juárez, A. & Jiménez, A. From Model to Case: Implementation, Follow-Up, and Evaluation of a Permanent School Prevention Program. Int J Ment Health Addiction 18, 443–458 (2020).

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