Problematic Gaming and Subjective Well-Being: How Does Mindfulness Play a Role?
Video game use becomes problematic when it disrupts the ability to fulfill social and personal responsibilities. It has also been associated with poorer subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affectivity). Research suggests that dispositional (or trait) mindfulness (e.g., general tendency to have focused awareness of the present moment, with acceptance) is associated with greater subjective well-being. Building on research on dispositional mindfulness’ protective role against other problematic behaviours (e.g., pathological gambling), this study assessed its influence on the relationship between problematic gaming and subjective well-being. A sample of 514 frequent gamers (37.9% female; M age = 22.56 years, SD = 4.3) completed an online survey. Structural equation modelling revealed that dispositional mindfulness partially negatively mediated the relationship between problematic gaming and both life satisfaction and negative affectivity while fully positively mediating that between problematic gaming and positive affectivity, suggesting dispositional mindfulness may be clinically useful in problematic gaming prevention and interventions.
KeywordsDispositional mindfulness Problematic gaming Subjective well-being Positive affectivity Negative affectivity Life satisfaction
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- Billieux, J., Van Der Linden, M., Achab, S., Khazaal, Y., Paraskevopoulos, L., Zullino, D., & Thorens, G. (2013). Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brown, K. W., Creswell, J. D., & Ryan, R. M. (2015). Handbook of mindfulness: theory, research and practice. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Dunne, J. D. (2015). Buddhist styles of mindfulness: A heuristic approach. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Entertainment Software Association (2015). 2015 Essential facts about the computer and video game industry. Retrieved from http://www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/ESA_EF_2008.pdf.
- Entertainment Software Association of Canada (ESAC). (2015). 2015 Essential facts about the Canadian video game industry. Retrieved from http://theesa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/ESAC_2015_Booklet_Version02_14_Digital.pdf
- Griffiths, M. D., van Rooij, A. J., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Starcevic, V., Király, O., Pallesen, S., Müller, K., Dreier, M., Carras, M., Prause, N., King, D. L., Aboujaoude, E., Kuss, D. J., Pontes, H. M., Lopez Fernandez, O., Nagygyorgy, K., Achab, S., Billieux, J., Quandt, T., Carbonell, X., Ferguson, C. J., Hoff, R. A., Derevensky, J., Haagsma, M. C., Delfabbro, P., Coulson, M., Hussain, Z., Demetrovics, Z., & Demetrovics, Z. (2016). Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing Internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014). Addiction, 111(1), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13057.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hart, R., Ivtzan, I., & Hart, D. (2013). Mind the gap in mindfulness research: A comparative account of the leading schools of thought. Review of General Psychology, 17(4), 453–466. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035212639947.2011.564843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hull, D. C., Williams, G. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: a pilot study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(3), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1556/JBA.2.2013.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
- Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy/bpg016.
- Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living (revised edition): using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
- Khoury, B., Knäuper, B., Pagnini, F., Trent, N., Chiesa, A., & Carrière, K. (2017). Embodied Mindfulness. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0700-7
- Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., Chapleau, M. A., Paquin, K., & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- King, D. L., Haagsma, M. C., Delfabbro, P. H., Gradisar, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Toward a consensus definition of pathological video-gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirby, A., Jones, C., & Copello, A. (2014). The impact of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) on psychological wellbeing and the role of play motivations and problematic use. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 12, 36–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-013-9467-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li, W., Garland, E. L., O’Brien, J. E., Tronnier, C., McGovern, P., Anthony, B., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for video game addiction in emerging adults: preliminary findings from case reports. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9765-8.
- Mentzoni, R. A., Brunborg, G. S., Molde, H., Myrseth, H., Skouverøe, K. J. M., Hetland, J., & Pallesen, S. (2011). Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(10), 591–596. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Müller, K. W., Janikian, M., Dreier, M., Wölfling, K., Beutel, M. E., Tzavara, C., Richardson, C., & Tsitsika, A. (2015). Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(5), 565–574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0611-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Park, T., Reilly-Spong, M., & Gross, C. R. (2013). Mindfulness: a systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patient-reported outcome (PRO). Quality of Life Research: an International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation, 22(10), 2639–2659. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-013-0395-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rehbein, F., Kliem, S., Baier, D., Mößle, T., & Petry, N. M. (2015). Prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a statewide representative sample. Addiction, 110(5), 842–851. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scott, J., & Porter-Armstrong, A. P. (2013). Impact of multiplayer online role-playing games upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults: reviewing the evidence. Psychiatry Journal, 2013, 8 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/464685.
- Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., Thoresen, C., & Plante, T. G. (2011). The moderation of mindfulness-based stress reduction effects by trait mindfulness: results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc..Google Scholar
- Vega, B. R., Melero-Llorente, J., Perez, C. B., Cebolla, S., Mira, J., Valverde, C., & Fernández-Liria, A. (2014). Impact of mindfulness training on attentional control and anger regulation processes for psychotherapists in training. Psychotherapy Research, 24(2), 202–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2013.838651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wartberg, L., Kriston, L., Kammerl, R., Petersen, K. U., & Thomasius, R. (2015). Prevalence of pathological Internet use in a representative German sample of adolescents: results of a latent profile analysis. Psychopathology, 48(1), 25–30. https://doi.org/10.1159/000365095.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Williams, M., Teasdale, J., Segal, Z., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2007). The mindful way through depression: Freeing yourself from chronic unhappiness. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar