Substance use is a significant problem among American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents, but the risk and protective factors specific to this population are less well understood. We analyzed risk and protective factors for 30-day and lifetime use of smokeless tobacco, cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana/hashish, and inhalants in a sample of 5912 AI/AN adolescents (43.85% female; mean age = 13.95 years). Results indicated that peer and family substance use, more favorable attitudes toward substance use, greater sensation-seeking, easier access to substances, and poor school performance were associated with increased odds of substance use. Living with both biological parents was associated with lower odds of substance use. Gender, religious service attendance, peer delinquent behavior, perceived maternal warmth, school opportunities for reward and prosocial involvement, school commitment, and community support were inconsistently related to substance use. These findings highlight the importance of addressing substance use among AI/AN adolescents at the sociodemographic, cultural, and psychological levels.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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Morrell, H.E.R., Hilton, B.T. & Rugless, K.L. Correlates of Substance Use Among American Indian/Alaska Native Adolescents. Int J Ment Health Addiction 18, 674–692 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9971-z
- American Indian/Alaska Native
- Substance use
- Risk factors