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Psychometric Properties of Three Measures of “Facebook Engagement and/or Addiction” Among a Sample of English-Speaking Pakistani University Students


For researchers interested in measuring the construct of “Facebook engagement and/or addiction,” there are a number of existing measures including the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, the Facebook Intensity Scale, and the Addictive Tendencies Scale. Currently, there is limited data on the psychometric properties of these three scales, especially among South Asian samples. The present aim was to address this shortfall. A sample of 308 English-speaking Pakistani university students completed the scales, in their original English versions, on two occasions separated by four weeks. Results demonstrated that for each of the scales, across both administrations, satisfactory psychometric properties were found, including internal reliability, temporal stability, and construct validity. Moreover, for these three scales, using confirmatory factor analysis, a one-factor structure was generally found to be a good description of the data for both male and female samples. These data provide further evidence for the reliability and validity of three scales concerned with “Facebook engagement and/or addiction.”

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Author information




JT—study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, research of background literature, and drafting/writing of the manuscript.

CAL—study concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, research of background literature, and drafting/writing of the manuscript.

SM—data collection and drafting/writing of the manuscript.

JAM—analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, and drafting/writing of the manuscript.

MJB—analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis, and drafting/writing of manuscript.

All authors had full access to all data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christopher Alan Lewis.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Turley, J., Lewis, C.A., Musharraf, S. et al. Psychometric Properties of Three Measures of “Facebook Engagement and/or Addiction” Among a Sample of English-Speaking Pakistani University Students. Int J Ment Health Addiction 17, 995–1007 (2019).

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  • Facebook
  • Addiction
  • Pakistan
  • Validity
  • Reliability