Positive Expectancies for the Future as Potential Protective Factors of Suicide Risk in Adults: Does Optimism and Hope Predict Suicidal Behaviors in Primary Care Patients?
The present study sought to examine optimism and hope as predictors of suicidal behaviors (viz., suicide ideation and suicide attempt) in a sample of 179 adult primary care patients. Furthermore, we aimed to determine if the combination of hope and optimism would account for additional variance in the prediction model for suicidal behaviors among this population. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed measures of hope (viz., agency and pathways), optimism, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a series of demographics questions. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the aforementioned hypotheses. Results indicated that hope and optimism were both significant and unique predictors of suicidal behaviors among adult primary care patients. However, the hope-by-optimism interaction terms were not found to be significant. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.
KeywordsOptimism Hope Suicidal behaviors Primary care patients
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5).
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). The hopeful optimist. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 288–290.Google Scholar
- Celano, C. M., Beale, E. E., Mastromauro, C. A., Stewart, J. G., Millstein, R. A., Auerbach, R. P., Bedoya, C. A., & Huffman, J. C. (2017). Psychological interventions to reduce suicidality in high-risk patients with major depression: A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 47, 810–821.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang, E. C., Martos, T., Sallay, V., Chang, O. D., Wright, K. M., Najarian, A. S.-M., & Lee, J. (2017). Examining optimism and hope as protective factors of suicide risk in Hungarian college students: is risk highest among those lacking positive psychological protection? Cognitive Therapy and Research., 41(2), 278–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (rev. ed.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Hing, E., Rui, P., & Palso, K. (2013). National ambulatory medical care survey: 2013 state and national summary tables. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- Loveday, P. M., Lovell, G. P., & Jones, C. M. (2018). The best possible selves intervention: A review of the literature to evaluate efficacy and guide future research. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19, 607–628.Google Scholar
- Muyan, M., & Chang, E. C. (2016). Hope as a mediator of the link between intimate partner violence and suicidal risk in Turkish women: further evidence for the role of hope agency. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516675465.
- Rudd, D. M., & Brown, G. K. (2011). A cognitive theory of suicide: building hope in treatment and strengthening the therapeutic relationship. In K. Michel & D. A. Jobes (Eds.), Building a therapeutic alliance with the suicidal patient (pp. 169–181). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2014). Results from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: mental health findings. In Rockville. SAMSHA: MD.Google Scholar
- US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (2012). 2012 National strategy for suicide prevention: goals and objectives for action. (DHHS publication no. 283-07-2301). Washington, DC: HHS Office of the Surgeon General and National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention.Google Scholar
- Windfuhr, K., While, D., Kapur, N., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Carr, M. J., et al. (2016). Suicide risk liked with clinical consultation frequency, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication prescribing in a national study of primary-care patients. Psychological Medicine, 46, 3407–3417.Google Scholar
- Wingate, L. R., Burns, A. B., Gordon, K. H., Perez, M., Walker, R. L., Williams, F. M., & Joiner, T. E. (2006). Suicide and positive cognitions: positive psychology applied to the understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior. In T. E. Ellis (Ed.), Cognition and suicide: theory, research, and therapy (pp. 261–283). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Preventing suicide: a global imperative. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Suicide rates (per 100,000), data by country, 2012. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.MHSUICIDE?lang=en