Effect of Khat Use During Pregnancy on the Birth Weight of Newborn in Jimma, Ethiopia
Today, drug misuse and abuse is becoming a major problem worldwide. Birth weight of a newborn remains an important predictor of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In 2006, approximately one in four newborns in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, had low birth weight. About 19% of pregnant women attending antenatal care in heath institutions of Jimma Zone were using khat during pregnancy. However, there is a lack of research on predictors of low birth weight especially the potential effect of khat use during pregnancy. To examine the effect of khat use during pregnancy on birth weight of newborn in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Institution-based case-control study design was conducted on a total of 336 mother-newborn pairs recruited at birth from public health facilities in Jimma town during April–June, 2013. One hundred twelve mothers who gave a live birth at term with a birth weight of < 2.5 kg were considered as cases, and 224 mothers who gave a live birth at term with a birth weight of ≥ 2.5 kg were considered as controls. Study subjects were selected consecutively. Maternal khat use during pregnancy was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) scale. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS) for Windows version 16. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the independent effect of maternal khat use during pregnancy on the birth weight of the newborn. The internal reliability (Cronbatch’s α) for the CIDI scale was 0.74. The odds of low birth weight among babies born from mothers who used khat during pregnancy were 12 times higher compared to those born from non-users. The odds of low birth weight among babies born from mothers who gained weight less than 10 kg during pregnancy were 11 times higher than those born from mothers who gained weight greater than 10 kg during pregnancy. The odds of low birth weight among babies born from mothers who had a birth interval of less than 3 years from the previous delivery were 3.5 times higher compared to those babies born from mothers who had a birth interval of greater than 3 years. Maternal khat use during pregnancy is strongly associated with low birth weight of the newborn. The observed association between maternal khat use during pregnancy and low birth weight of the newborn calls for public health interventions to reduce maternal khat use during pregnancy and its consequence on the health of the newborn.
KeywordsKhat use Birth weight Ethiopia
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethical approval was sought from the research ethical review committee of College Health Sciences of Jimma University. Written informed consent was obtained from every study subject before the interview.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Al-Hegami M.2001 Effects of Catha edulis on some blood contents and the tissues of the digestive system of rabbits. MSc. thesis, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, YemenGoogle Scholar
- Department of Health Statistical Bulletin. (n.d.) Department of Health (1998/05): drug misuse statistics for six months ending September 1996. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
- Dhaifalah, I., & Santavy, J. (2004). Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine. Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty, University Palacky, Olomouc, Czech Republic, 148, 11–15. Google Scholar
- Hassan, N. A. G. M., Gunaid, A. A., El Khally, F. M. Y., & Murray-Lyon, I. M. (2003). The subjective effects of chewing qat leaves in human volunteers. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 22(1–2), 34–37.Google Scholar
- Hassan N., Gunaid A., & Murray-Lyon, I. (2005). The impact of qat-chewingonhealth: a re-evaluation. The British-Yemeni Society; available at: http://www.albab.com/bys/articles/has san05.htm.Retrievedon11/2/2006.
- Kalix,1984; Toennes, Harder, Schramm, Niess, & Kauert, 2003.Google Scholar
- Motohiro Nakajima, Mulusew G. Jebena, Mohammed Taha, Markos Tesfaye, Esayas Kebebe Gudina, Andrine Lemieux, Richard Hoffman, Mustafa al’Absi (2017) Correlates of khat use during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study: addictive behaviors xxx xxx-xxxGoogle Scholar
- National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, J.E. Siza (2008) Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among pregnant women attending a referral hospital in northern Tanzania, Tanzania Journal of Health Research , Vol. 10, No. 1.Google Scholar
- S.M. Pinto et al. (2010) Substance abuse during pregnancy: effect on pregnancy outcomes in Liverpool Women’s Hospital, United Kingdom. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2010.02.026.
- Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablensky A, Pickens R, Regier DA, Sartorius N, Towle LH. 1988The Composite International Diagnostic Interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 1069–1077.Google Scholar
- Alayne G. Ronnenberg, Xiaobin Wang, Houxun Xing, Chanzhong Chen, Dafang Chen, Wenwei Guang, Aiqun Guang†, Lihua Wang, Louise Ryan and Xiping Xu (2009) Low Preconception body mass index is associated with birth outcome in a prospective cohort of Chinese women, Downloaded from jn.nutrition.org on September 28
- UNICEF:(n.d.) Low Birth Weight, Country Regional and Global estimates. [http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_24840.html].
- Zein A. 1983 Polydrug abuse among Ethiopian university students with particular reference to khat (Catha edulis): In Proceedings of international symposium of khat,: 83–88.Google Scholar