International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 1320–1341 | Cite as

What Behaviours and Cognitions Support Responsible Consumption of Gambling? Results from an Expert Survey

  • Nerilee HingEmail author
  • Alex M.T. Russell
  • Anastasia Hronis
Original Article


This study analysed expert views on (1) the adequacy of the current promotion of responsible gambling, (2) the practicality and worth of developing an evidence-based set of responsible gambling consumption behaviours and cognitions and (3) the relative importance of behaviours and cognitions promoted as supporting responsible consumption of gambling. Experts (N = 107) rated the importance of 61 behaviours and cognitions, distilled from a systematic literature review and content analysis of 30 websites, and grouped into seven categories. Behaviours and cognitions considered most important for problem gamblers related to ensuring gambling is affordable, limiting persistence at gambling, and using help and support. Those for at-risk gamblers related to understanding gambling, ensuring gambling expenditure is affordable, and keeping gambling in balance. For non-problem gamblers, important behaviours and cognitions related to understanding gambling, keeping gambling in balance, and positive motivations for gambling. Current promotion of responsible gambling was considered inadequate. Efforts to develop, validate and promote evidence-based responsible gambling consumption behaviours and cognitions can build on those identified in this research.


Harm minimisation Gambling disorder Safe gambling Responsible gambling Gambling consumption Problem gambling At-risk gambling Consumer protection 



Financial support for this study was received from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. We would also like to thank the 107 experts who responded to our survey for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The first author has received funds from the following sources: Australian Research Council, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, and the Australian Communications and Media Authority, Gambling Research Australia, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation and the NSW, Queensland, Victorian and South Australian Governments; and has acted as a consultant on responsible gambling for the gambling industry (Echo Entertainment, Sportsbet). The second author has received funds from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, Department of Queensland Justice and Attorney General, Gambling Research Australia, National Association for Gambling Studies, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute and the Australian Communications and Media Authority. He has acted as a consultant for the gambling industry for 3 years for a project on gambling by employees of Star (previously Echo) Entertainment casinos. The third author has no competing interests to declare. None of the authors has a financial relationship with the organisation that sponsored this research.

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversityBundabergAustralia
  2. 2.School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Anastasia Hronis, Discipline of Clinical Psychology, Graduate School of HealthUniversity of Technology SydneyUltimoAustralia

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