Advertisement

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 1320–1341 | Cite as

What Behaviours and Cognitions Support Responsible Consumption of Gambling? Results from an Expert Survey

  • Nerilee HingEmail author
  • Alex M.T. Russell
  • Anastasia Hronis
Original Article

Abstract

This study analysed expert views on (1) the adequacy of the current promotion of responsible gambling, (2) the practicality and worth of developing an evidence-based set of responsible gambling consumption behaviours and cognitions and (3) the relative importance of behaviours and cognitions promoted as supporting responsible consumption of gambling. Experts (N = 107) rated the importance of 61 behaviours and cognitions, distilled from a systematic literature review and content analysis of 30 websites, and grouped into seven categories. Behaviours and cognitions considered most important for problem gamblers related to ensuring gambling is affordable, limiting persistence at gambling, and using help and support. Those for at-risk gamblers related to understanding gambling, ensuring gambling expenditure is affordable, and keeping gambling in balance. For non-problem gamblers, important behaviours and cognitions related to understanding gambling, keeping gambling in balance, and positive motivations for gambling. Current promotion of responsible gambling was considered inadequate. Efforts to develop, validate and promote evidence-based responsible gambling consumption behaviours and cognitions can build on those identified in this research.

Keywords

Harm minimisation Gambling disorder Safe gambling Responsible gambling Gambling consumption Problem gambling At-risk gambling Consumer protection 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this study was received from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. We would also like to thank the 107 experts who responded to our survey for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The first author has received funds from the following sources: Australian Research Council, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute, and the Australian Communications and Media Authority, Gambling Research Australia, Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation and the NSW, Queensland, Victorian and South Australian Governments; and has acted as a consultant on responsible gambling for the gambling industry (Echo Entertainment, Sportsbet). The second author has received funds from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation, Department of Queensland Justice and Attorney General, Gambling Research Australia, National Association for Gambling Studies, the Alberta Gambling Research Institute and the Australian Communications and Media Authority. He has acted as a consultant for the gambling industry for 3 years for a project on gambling by employees of Star (previously Echo) Entertainment casinos. The third author has no competing interests to declare. None of the authors has a financial relationship with the organisation that sponsored this research.

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

References

  1. Abbott, M., Bellringer, M., Garrett, N., & Mundy-McPherson, S. (2014). New Zealand 2012 National Gambling Study: overview and gambling participation. Report no. 1. Wellington: Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2013). Problem gambling prevention: before, during, and after measures. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(5), 568–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). A science-based framework for responsible gambling: the Reno model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(3), 301–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., & Shaffer, H. (2008). Informed choice and gambling: principles for consumer protection. Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, 2, 103–118.Google Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., Collins, P., Fong, D., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., Shaffer, H. J., et al. (2011). Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(4), 565–573.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaszczynski, A., Gainsbury, S., & Karlov, L. (2014). Blue gum gaming machine: an evaluation of responsible gambling features. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(3), 697–712.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, A. (2008). Gambling and self-regulation. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph.Google Scholar
  10. Browne, M., Langham, E., Rawat, V., Greer, N., Li, E., Rose, J., et al. (2016). Assessing gambling-related harm in Victoria: a public health perspective. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, C. S., & Smith, G. J. (2003). Gambling in Canada: from vice to disease to responsibility: A negotiated history. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 20(1), 121–149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunningham, J. A. (2005). Little use of treatment among problem gamblers. Psychiatric Services, 56(8), 1024–1025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., El-Guebaly, N., Wynne, H., & Chen, S. (2006). Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities. Addiction, 101(4), 570–580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., El-Guebaly, N., & Wynne, H. (2008a). In pursuit of empirically based responsible gambling limits. International Gambling Studies, 8(2), 207–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., El-Guebaly, N., Wynne, H., & Miller, N. V. (2008b). Replication of low-risk gambling limits using Canadian provincial gambling prevalence data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(3), 321–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Currie, S. R., Miller, N., Hodgins, D. C., & Wang, J. (2009). Defining a threshold of harm from gambling for population health surveillance research. International Gambling Studies, 9(1), 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Casey, D. M., El-Guebaly, N., Smith, G. J., Williams, R. J., et al. (2012). Examining the predictive validity of low-risk gambling limits with longitudinal data. Addiction, 107(2), 400–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Delfabbro, P. H. (2012). Australasian gambling review (5th ed.). Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority.Google Scholar
  19. Dzik, B. (2006). Between consumption and investment: a new approach to the study of the motivation to gamble. Journal of Gambling Issues, 17. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2006.17.4.
  20. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  21. Gainsbury, S. (2010). Self-exclusion: a comprehensive review of the evidence. Guelph, ON: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
  22. Gainsbury, S. M., Russell, A. M. T., Blaszczynski, A., & Hing, N. (2015). Interaction between gambling activities and modes of access. Addictive Behaviors, 41, 34–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodie, A. S., & Fortune, E. E. (2013). Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: Review and meta-analyses. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gordon, R., Gurrieri, L., & Chapman, M. (2015). Broadening an understanding of problem gambling: The lifestyle consumption community of sports betting. Journal of Business Research, 68(10), 2164–2172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hancock, L., Schellinck, T., & Schrans, T. (2008). Gambling and corporate social responsibility (CSR): re-defining industry and state roles on duty of care, host responsibility and risk management. Policy and Society, 27(1), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hing, N. (2002). The emergence of problem gambling as a corporate social issue in Australia. International Gambling Studies, 2(1), 101–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hing, N. (2005). Giving the gamblers a voice: the perceived efficacy of responsible gambling practices in NSW clubs. Gambling Research, 17(1), 53–69.Google Scholar
  28. Hing, N. (2010). The evolution of responsible gambling policy and practice: insights for Asia from Australia. Asian Journal of Gambling Issues & Public Health, 1(1), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hing, N., Nuske, E., & Gainsbury, S. (2012). Gamblers at risk and their help-seeking behaviour. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  30. Hing, N., Gainsbury, S., Blaszczynski, A., Wood, R., Lubman, D., & Russell, A. (2014a). Interactive gambling. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Hing, N., Tolchard, B., Nuske, E., Holdsworth, L., & Tiyce, M. (2014b). A process evaluation of a self-exclusion program: a qualitative investigation from the perspective of excluders and non-excluders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(4), 509–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hing, N., Cherney, L., Gainsbury, S., Lubman, D., Wood, R., & Blaszczynski, A. (2015a). Maintaining and losing control during internet gambling: a qualitative study of gamblers’ experiences. New Media and Society, 17(7), 1075–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hing, N., Russell, A., Tolchard, B., & Nower, L. (2015b). Risk factors for gambling problems: an analysis by gender. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32, 511–534.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hing, N., Lamont, M., Vitartas, P., & Fink, E. (2015c). How sports bettors respond to sports-embedded gambling promotions: implications for compulsive consumption. Journal of Business Research, 68, 2057–2066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hing, N., Sproston, K., Brook, K., & Brading, R. (2016, online). The structural features of sports and race betting inducements: issues for harm minimisation and consumer protection. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10899-016-9642-6.
  36. Hing, N., Sproston, K., Tran, K., & Russell, A. M. T. (2017). Gambling responsibly: who does it and to what end? Journal of Gambling Studies, 33, 149–165. doi: 10.1007/s10899-016-9615-.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hodgins, D. C., & El-Guebaly, N. (2000). Natural and treatment-assisted recovery from gambling problems: a comparison of resolved and active gamblers. Addiction, 95(5), 777–789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jackson, A. C., Dowling, N., Thomas, S. A., & Holt, T. A. (2008). Treatment careers in problem gambling: factors associated with first treatment and treatment re-entry. Addiction Research and Theory, 16(6), 618–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: a new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Joukhador, J., Maccallum, F., & Blaszczynski, A. (2003). Differences in cognitive distortions between problem and social gamblers. Psychological Reports, 92(3 Pt 2), 1203–1214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Korn, D., & Shaffer, H. (1999). Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15(4), 289–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., & Doucet, C. (2002). Understanding and treating pathological gamblers. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Ladouceur, R., Blaszczynski, A., & Lalande, D. (2012). Pre-commitment in gambling: a review of the empirical evidence. International Gambling Studies, 12(2), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lalande, D. R., & Ladouceur, R. (2011). Can cybernetics inspire gambling research? A limit-based conceptualization of self-control. International Gambling Studies, 11(2), 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lamont, M., Hing, N., & Vitartas, P. (2016). Affective responses to gambling promotions during televised sport: a qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 19(3), 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Langham, E., Thorne, H., Browne, M., Donaldson, P., Rose, J., & Rockloff, M. (2016). Understanding gambling related harm: a proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, H. P., Chae, P. K., Lee, H. S., & Kim, Y. K. (2007). The five-factor gambling motivation model. Psychiatry Research, 150(1), 21–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Livingstone, C., & Woolley, R. (2007). Risky business: a few provocations on the regulation of electronic gaming machines. International Gambling Studies, 7(3), 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lostutter, T. W., Lewis, M. A., Cronce, J. M., Neighbors, C., & Larimer, M. E. (2014). The use of protective behaviors in relation to gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(1), 27–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Lucar, C., Wiebe, J., & Philander, K. (2013). Monetary limits tools for internet gamblers: a review of their availability, implementation and effectiveness online. Retrieved from: http://www.responsiblegambling.org/docs/research-reports/monetary-limits-tools-for-internet-gamblers.pdf?sfvrsn=8
  51. Markham, F., & Young, M. (2015). “Big ambling”: the rise of the global industry-state gambling complex. Addiction Research & Theory, 23(1), 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDonnell-Phillips. (2006). Analysis of gambler precommitment behaviour. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  53. McMillen, J. (1997). When gambling is a problem: implications for public health. Consumer Rights Journal, 1(3), 10–13.Google Scholar
  54. Moore, S. M., Thomas, A. C., Kyrios, M., & Bates, G. (2012). The self-regulation of gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(3), 405–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Neal, P., Delfabbro, P., & O’Neil, M. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: towards a national definition. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  56. Nelson, S. E., Kleschinsky, J. H., LaPLante, D. A., Gray, H. M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2013). A benchmark study for monitoring exposure to new gambling opportunities. Cambridge, MA: Division on Addiction.Google Scholar
  57. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Gambling motivations, money-limiting strategies, and precommitment preferences of problem versus non-problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(3), 361–372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Pallesen, S., Mitsem, M., Kvale, G., Johnsen, B. H., & Molde, H. (2005). Outcome of psychological treatments of pathological gambling: A review and meta-analysis. Addiction, 100(10), 1412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Parke, A., Harris, A., Parke, J., Rigbye, J., & Blaszczynski, A. (2014). Facilitating awareness and informed choice in gambling. The Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, 8(3), 6–20.Google Scholar
  60. Patford, J. L. (2007). Linked lives: adult children’s experiences of late onset parental gambling problems. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5(4), 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Patford, J. L. (2009). For worse, for poorer and in ill health: how women experience, understand and respond to a partner’s gambling problems. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7(1), 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Petry, N. M. (2005). Stages of change in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 73, 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reith, G. (2007). Gambling and the contradictions of consumption: a genealogy of the ‘pathological’ subject. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(1), 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reith, G. (2008). Editorial: reflections on responsibility. Journal of Gambling Issues, 22, 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Responsible Gambling Council (2010). Insight 2010: informed decision making. Retrieved from: http://www.responsiblegambling.org/rg-news-research/rgc-centre/insight-projects/docs/default-source/research-reports/informed-decision-making
  66. Samson, T., Rossen, F., & Hoque, E. (2012). The New Zealand gaming and betting survey: Chinese and Indian people’s experience. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 8(2), 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saugeres, L., Thomas, A., Moore, S., & Bates, G. (2012). Gamblers tell their stories: life patterns of gambling. Melbourne: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation.Google Scholar
  68. Schottler Consulting. (2010). Factors that influence gambler adherence to pre-commitment decisions. Retrieved from http://www.gamblingresearch.org.au/home/research/gra+research+reports/factors+that+influence+a+gambler+pre-commitment+decisions+2010
  69. Schüll, N. D. (2012). Addiction by design: machine gambling in Las Vegas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Sharpe, L., & Tarrier, N. (1993). Towards a cognitive-behavioural theory of problem gambling. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 162(3), 407–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sproston, K., Hanley, C., Brook, K., Hing, N., & Gainsbury, S. (2015). Marketing of sports betting and racing. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  72. Steenbergh, T. A., Meyers, A. W., May, R. K., & Whelan, J. P. (2002). Development and validation of the gamblers’ beliefs questionnaire. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 143. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.16.2.143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Stewart, S. H., & Zack, M. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of a three-dimensional gambling motives questionnaire. Addiction, 103(7), 1110–1117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Suurvali, H., Hodgins, D., Toneatto, T., & Cunningham, J. (2008). Treatment seeking among Ontario problem gamblers: results of a population survey. Psychiatric Services, 59(11), 1343–1346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Tavares, H., Martins, S. S., Zilberman, M. L., & El-Guebaly, N. (2002). Gamblers seeking treatment: why haven't they come earlier? Addictive Disorders & their Treatment, 1(2), 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thomas, A. C., Allen, F. C., & Phillips, J. (2009). Electronic gaming machine gambling: measuring motivation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(3), 343–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Toneatto, T., & Ladoceur, R. (2003). Treatment of pathological gambling: a critical review of the literature. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17(4), 284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Turner, N. E., Wiebe, J., Falkowski-Ham, A., Kelly, J., & Skinner, W. (2005). Public awareness of responsible gambling and gambling behaviours in Ontario. International Gambling Studies, 5(1), 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Williams, R. J., West, B. L., & Simpson, R. I. (2012). Prevention of problem gambling: a comprehensive review of the evidence and identified best practices. Guelph, ON: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
  80. Wood, R. T., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Understanding positive play: an exploration of playing experiences and responsible gambling practices. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(4), 1715–1734. doi: 10.1007/s10899-014-9489-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wood, R. T., & Williams, R. J. (2011). A comparative profile of the internet gambler: demographic characteristics, game-play patterns, and problem gambling status. New Media & Society, 13(7), 1123–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wood, R. T., Wohl, M. J., Tabri, N., & Philander, K. (2017). Measuring responsible gambling amongst players: development of the positive play scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 227.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversityBundabergAustralia
  2. 2.School of Health, Medical and Applied SciencesCQUniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Anastasia Hronis, Discipline of Clinical Psychology, Graduate School of HealthUniversity of Technology SydneyUltimoAustralia

Personalised recommendations