Skip to main content
Log in

Automatic Mental Processes, Automatic Actions and Behaviours in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study Using Online Forum Data

  • Published:
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that the playing of videogames can have both intended and unintended effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of videogames on players’ mental processes and behaviours in day-to-day settings. A total of 1,022 self-reports from 762 gamers collected from online videogame forums were classified, quantified, described and explained. The data include automatic thoughts, sensations and impulses, automatic mental replays of the game in real life, and voluntary/involuntary behaviours with videogame content. Many gamers reported that they had responded–at least sometimes–to real life stimuli as if they were still playing videogames. This included overreactions, avoidances, and involuntary movements of limbs. These experiences lasted relatively short periods of time and some gamers experienced them recurrently. The gamers’ experiences appeared to be enhanced by virtual embodiment, repetitive manipulation of game controls, and their gaming habits. However, similar phenomena may also occur when doing other non-gaming activities. The implications of these game transfer experiences are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aardema, F., O’Connor, K., Côté, S., & Taillon, A. (2010). Virtual reality induces dissociation and lowers sense of presence in objective reality. CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 13(4), 429–435. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772–790.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: theory, research, and public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: a cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. American Psychologist, 45(4), 494–503. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.45.4.49.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beullens, K., Roe, K., & Van den Bulck, J. (2008). Video games and adolescents’ intentions to take risks in traffic. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(1), 87–90. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.12.002.

  • Boot, W. R., Kramer, A. F., Simons, D. J., Fabiani, M., & Gratton, G. (2008). The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control. Acta Psychologica, 129(3), 387–398. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.09.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. J., Lieberman, D. A., Gemeny, B. A., Fan, Y. C., Wilson, D. M., & Pasta, D. J. (1997). Educational video game for juvenile diabetes: results of a controlled trial. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 22(1), 77–89. doi:10.3109/14639239709089835.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bushman, B., & Anderson, C. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: a test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679–1686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bushman, B. J., & Gibson, B. (2011). Violent video games cause an increase in aggression long after the game Has been turned off. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(1), 29–32. doi:10.1177/1948550610379506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Champney, R. K., Stanney, K. M., Hash, P. A., Malone, L. C., Kennedy, R. S., & Compton, D. E. (2007). Recovery from virtual environment exposure: expected time course of symptoms and potential readaptation strategies. [Research support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.]. Human Factors, 49(3), 491–506.

    Google Scholar 

  • Costello, C. G. (1970). Dissimilarities between conditioned avoidance responses and phobias. Psychological review, 77(3), 250–254. doi:10.1037/h0029228.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cox, W. M., Hogan, L. M., Kristian, M. R., & Race, J. H. (2002). Alcohol attentional bias as a predictor of alcohol abusers’ treatment outcome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 68(3), 237–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demetrovics, Z., Urbán, R., Nagygyörgy, K., Farkas, J., Griffiths, M. D., Pápay, O., & Oláh, A. (2012). The development of the problematic online gaming questionnaire (POGQ). PloS one, 7(5), e36417.

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Forsyth, R., Harland, R., & Edwards, T. (2001). Computer game delusions. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 94(4), 184–185.

    Google Scholar 

  • Funk, J. B., Baldacci, H. B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 23–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths, M. (2002). Gambling and gaming addictions in adolescence. Oxford: BPS Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grusser, S. M., Thalemann, R., & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression? Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 290–292.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyman, I. E., Burland, N. K., Duskin, H. M., Cook, M. C., Roy, C. M., McGrath, J. C., & Roundhill, R. F. (2012). Going gaga: investigating, creating, and manipulating the song stuck in my head. Applied Cognitive Psychology. doi:10.1002/acp.2897.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ichimura, A., Nakajima, I., Sadiq, M. A., & Juzoji, H. (2007). Investigation and analysis of a reported incident resulting in an actual airline hijacking due to a fanatical and engrossed VR state. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 355–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.Review]. Psychological Bulletin, 114(1), 3–28.

  • Jones, S. R., de-Wit, L., Fernyhough, C., & Meins, E. (2008). A new spin on the wheel of fortune: priming of action-authorship judgements and relation to psychosis-like experiences. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(3), 576–586. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.08.008.

  • Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). An introduction to game transfer phenomena in video game playing. In J. I. Gackenbach (Ed.), Video game play and consciousness. NY: Nova Publisher.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Aronsson, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Game transfer phenomena in video game playing: a qualitative interview study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 1(3), 15–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., & Griffiths, M.D. (2014a). Auditory experiences in game transfer phenomena: an empirical self-report study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, in press.

  • Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). Altered visual perception in game transfer phenomena: an empirical self-report study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 30, 95–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Persky, S., & Blascovich, J. (2008). Immersive virtual video game play and presence: influences on aggressive feelings and behavior. [Article]. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 17(1), 57–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petkova, V. I., & Ehrsson, H. H. (2008). If I were You: perceptual illusion of body swapping. PloS ONE, 3(12), e3832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003832.

  • Roberts, K. P., & Blades, M. (1999). Children’s memory and source monitoring of real-life and televised events. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20(4), 575–596. doi:10.1016/s0193-3973(99)00030-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Carpentier, F. R. D. (2002). Media priming: a synthesis.

  • Segovia, K. Y., & Bailenson, J. N. (2009). Virtually true: children’s acquisition of false memories in virtual reality. Media psychology. Media Psychology, 12, 371–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2006). The restless mind. [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.Review]. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6), 946–958. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.946.

  • Soutullo, C. A., McElroy, S. L., & Goldsmith, R. J. (1998). Cravings and irresistible impulses: similarities between addictions and impulse control disorders. Psychiatric Annals, 28, 592–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stanney, K. M., & Kennedy, R. S. (1998). Aftereffects from virtual environment exposure: how long do they last? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 42(21), 1476–1480. doi:10.1177/154193129804202103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamborini, R., Eastin, M. S., Skalski, P., Lachlan, K., Fediuk, T. A., & Brady, R. (2004). Violent virtual video games and hostile thoughts. [Article]. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(3), 335–357.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van den Linden, D., Frese, M., & Meijman, T. F. (2003). Mental fatigue and the control of cognitive processes: effects on perseveration and planning. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Acta Psychologica, 113(1), 45–65.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Viirre, E., & Bush, D. (2002). Direct effects of virtual enviroments on users. In K. M. Stanney (Ed.), Handbook of virtual environments: design, implementation, and applications (pp. 581–588). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yee, N., & Bailenson, J. N. (2007). The proteus effect: the effect of transformed self-representation on behavior. Human Communication Research, 33, 271–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yee, N., & Bailenson, J. N. (2009). The difference between being and seeing: the relative contribution of self-perception and priming to behavioral changes via digital self-representation. Media Psychology, 12(2), 195–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou, Z., Yuan, G., & Yao, J. (2012). Cognitive biases toward internet game-related pictures and executive deficits in individuals with an internet game addiction. PloS ONE, 7(11), e48961.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Angelica B. Ortiz de Gortari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., Griffiths, M.D. Automatic Mental Processes, Automatic Actions and Behaviours in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study Using Online Forum Data. Int J Ment Health Addiction 12, 432–452 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9476-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9476-3

Keywords

Navigation