Advertisement

Problem Gambling Prevention: Before, During, and After Measures

  • Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs
Article

Abstract

This paper reviewed the literature on problem gambling prevention measures, and found two problem gambling prevention models: harm reduction and responsible gambling. Problem gambling prevention measures could be classified according to the temporal sequence of before, during and after gambling. Before measures involved attempts to change misconceptions and attitudes toward gambling; they tended to have limited effect on gambling behaviors. During measures required structural changes to gambling machines, and insertion of warning messages; they tended to have mixed results in terms of gambling behaviors. After measures included relapse prevention and self-exclusion; some self-excluded gamblers returned to gambling. Future research should focus on theory, longitudinal studies, internet gambling, and cross-national research. No prevention measure seemed to be more effective than the gamblers’ motivation to control their own gambling behaviors.

Keywords

Problem gambling Prevention measures Harm reduction Responsible gambling Self-exclusion 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author thanks Dr. Thomas J. Knutson for his assistance in the literature search, and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the earlier draft of this paper.

References

  1. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2011a). Before, during and after measures to reduce gambling harm. Addiction, 106(1), 12–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03178.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2011b). Lottery gambling: a review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 15–33. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9194-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2011c). Older adults and gambling: a review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10, 297–308. doi: 10.1007/s11469-011-9325-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur, D., Tong, W. L., Chen, C. P., Hing, A. Y., Sagara-Rosemeyer, M., Kua, E. H., et al. (2008). The validity and reliability of four measures of gambling behaviour in a sample of Singapore university students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 451–462. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9103-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). A science-based framework for responsible gambling: the Reno model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(3), 301–317. doi: 10.1023/B:JOGS.0000040281.49444.e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Nower, L. (2007). Self-exclusion: a proposed gateway to treatment model. International Gambling Studies, 7(1), 59–71. doi: 10.1080/14459790601157830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., Collins, P., Fong, D., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., Shaffer, H. J., et al. (2011). Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 565–573. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9214-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, S. L., & Jonkman, J. N. (2007). Disordered gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 175–183. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9036-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breen, H., Buultjens, J., & Hing, N. (2005a). Evaluating implementation of a voluntary responsible gambling code in Queensland, Australia. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3(1), 15–25.Google Scholar
  10. Breen, H., Buultjens, J., & Hing, N. (2005b). The responsible gambling code in Queensland, Australia: implementation and venue assessment. UNLV Gambing Research & Review Journal, 9(1), 43–60.Google Scholar
  11. Breen, H., Buultjens, J., & Hing, N. (2006). Implementing responsible gambling practices in a regional area. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 13(1), 23–43. doi: 10.1375/jhtm.13.1.23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantinotti, M., & Ladouceur, R. (2008). Harm reduction and electronic gambling machines: does this pair make a happy couple or is divorce foreseen? Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 39–54. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9072-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CBC News. (2010). Online gambling coming to Ontario Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/story/2010/08/10/ontario-gambling-olg546.html
  14. Cloutier, M., Ladouceur, R., & Sevigny, S. (2006). Responsible gambling tools: pop-up messages and pauses on video lottery terminals. The Journal of Psychology, 140(5), 434–438. doi: 10.3200/JRLP.140.5.434-438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., Wang, J., El-Guebaly, N., & Wynne, H. (2008). In pursuit of empirically based responsible gambling limits. International Gambling Studies, 8(2), 207–227. doi: 10.1080/14459790802172265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). The experience of pervasive loss: children and young people living in a family where parental gambling is a problem. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 23–45. doi: 10.1023/A:1014536315167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Delfabbro, P. (2004). The stubborn logic of regular gamblers: obstacles and dilemmas in cognitive gambling research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Derevensky, J. L., Gupta, R., & Baboushkin, H. R. (2007). Underlying cognitions in children’s gambling behavior: can they be modified? Intenational Gambling Studies, 7(3), 281–298. doi: 10.1080/14459790701601448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickson, L. M., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2002). The prevention of gambling problems in youth: a conceptual framework. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(2), 97–159. doi: 10.1023/A:1015557115049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dickson, L., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2004a). Youth gambling prolems: a harm reduction prevention model. Addiction Research and Theory, 12(4), 305–316. doi: 10.1080/1606635042000236466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickson, L. M., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2004b). Harm reduction for the prevention of youth gambling problems: lessons learned from adolescent high-risk behavior prevention programs. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(2), 233–263. doi: 10.1177/0743558403258272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doiron, J. P., & Nicki, R. M. (2007). Prevention of pathological gambling: a randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 36(2), 74–84. doi: 10.1080/16506070601092966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dufour, J., Ladouceur, R., & Giroux, I. (2010). Training program on responsible gambling among video lottery employees. International Gambling Studies, 10(1), 61–80. doi: 10.1080/14459791003743037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Echeburua, E., Fernandez-Montalvo, J., & Baez, C. (2000). Relapse prevention in the treatment of slot-machine pathological gambling: long-term outcome. Behavior Therapy, 31, 351–364. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(00)80019-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans, R. (2003). Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention progrms for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(3), 287–302. doi: 10.1023/A:1024207504890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faregh, N., & Leth-Steensen, C. (2009). Reflections on the voluntary self-exclusion of gamblers and the law-suites against Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 131–138. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9114-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ferland, F., Ladouceur, R., & Vitaro, F. (2002). Prevention of problem gambling: modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(1), 19–29. doi: 10.1023/A:1014528128578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fong, T. W., Campos, M. D., Brecht, M.-L., Davis, A., Marco, A., Pecanha, V., et al. (2011). Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 35–47. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9200-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Friend, K. B., & Ladd, G. T. (2009). Youth gambling advertising: a review of the lessons learned from tobacco control. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 16(4), 283–297. doi: 10.1080/09687630701838026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaboury, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1993). Evaluation of a prevention program for pathological gambling among adolescents. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 14(1), 21–28. doi: 10.1007/BF01324653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Giroux, I., Boutin, C., Ladouceur, R., Lachance, S., & Dufour, M. (2008). Awareness training program on responsible gambling for casino employees. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 594–601. doi: 10.1007/s11469-008-9165-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haefeli, J., Lischer, S., & Schwarz, J. (2011). Early detection items and responsible gambling features for online gambling. International Gambling Studies, 11(3), 273–288. doi: 10.1080/14459795.2011.604643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hansen, M., & Rossow, I. (2010). Limited cash flow on slot machines: effects on prohibition of note acceptors on adolescent gambling behaviour. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8, 70–81. doi: 10.1007/s11469-009-9196-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hayer, T., & Meyer, G. (2011). Self-exclusion as a harm minimization strategy: evidence for the casino sector from selected European countries. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(4), 685–700. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9227-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hing, N. (2003). Principles, processes and practices in responsible provision of gambling: a conceptual discussion. UNLV Gambing Research & Review Journal, 7(1), 33–47.Google Scholar
  36. Hing, N., & Nuske, E. (2011). The self-exclusion experience for problem gamblers in South Australia. Australian Social Work, 1–17 iFirst article. doi: 10.1080/0312407X.2011.594955
  37. Hodgins, D. C., Peden, N., & Cassidy, E. (2005). The association between comorbidity and outcome in pathological gambling: a prospective follow-up of recent quitters. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(3), 255–271. doi: 10.1007/s10899-005-3099-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hodgins, D. C., Currie, S. R., el-Guebaly, N., & Diskin, K. M. (2007). Does providing extended relapse prevention bibliotherapy to problem gamblers improve outcome? Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 41–54. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9045-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holdsworth, L., Haw, J., & Hing, N. (2011). The temporal sequencing of problem gambling and comorbid disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10, 197–209. doi: 10.1007/ss11469-011-9324-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Homeland Security News Wire. (2011). Ontario casinos implement ground breaking facial recognition technology Retrieved June 28, 2012, from http://www.homelandsecuritynewswire.com/ontario-casinos-implement-ground-breaking-facial-recognition-technology
  41. Kalke, J., Verthein, U., Farnbacher, G., & Haasen, C. (2007). Active prevention of pathological gambling for lotteries and sports betting in Hamburg. First results of the evaluation. Pravention und Gesundheitsforderung, 2(4), 249–253. doi: 10.1007/s11553-007-0078-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kelly, J. M., & Igelman, A. (2009). Compulsive gambling lititation: casinos and the duty of care. Gaming Law Review & Economics, 13(5), 386–403. doi: 10.1089/glre.2009.13503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Korman, L. M., Collins, J., Dutton, D., Dhayananthan, B., Littman-Sharp, N., & Skinner, W. (2008). Problem gambling and intimate partner violence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 13–23. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9077-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. LaBrie, R. A., Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., Caro, G., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Missouri casino self-excluders: distributions across time and space. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 231–243. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9037-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ladouceur, R., Jacque, C., Giroux, I., Ferland, F., & Leblond, J. (2000). Analysis of a casino’s self-exclusion program. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(4), 453–460. doi: 10.1023/A:1009488308348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ladouceur, R., Ferland, F., & Vitaro, F. (2004). Prevention of problem gambling: modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge among Canadian youths. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 25(3), 329–335. doi: 10.1023/B:JOPP.0000048024.37066.32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ladouceur, R., Ferland, F., Vitaro, F., & Pelletier, O. (2005). Modifying youths’ perception toward pathological gamblers. Addictive Behaviors, 30(2), 351–354. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.05.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., & Gosselin, P. (2007). Self-exclusion program: a longitudinal evaluation study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 85–94. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9032-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. LaPlante, D. A., Gray, H. M., LaBrie, R. A., Kleschinsky, J. H., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). Gaming industry employees’ responses to responsible gambling training: a public health imperative. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(2), 171–191. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9255-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lavoie, M.-P., & Ladouceur, R. (2004). Prevention of gambling among youth: increasing knowledge and modifying attitudes toward gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 10. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2004.10.7.
  51. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  52. MacKinnon, D. P., & Luecken, L. J. (2008). How and for whom? Mediation and moderation in health psychology. Health Psychology, 27(2 Suppl.), S99–S100. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.2(Suppl.).S99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McComb, J. L., & Sabiston, C. M. (2010). Family influences on adolescent gambling behavior: a review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 503–520. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9181-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCormick, J., Delfabbro, P., & Denson, L. A. (2011). Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs’ general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, Published online 25 November 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9281-x
  55. Messerlian, C., & Derevensky, J. (2006). Social marketing campaigns for youth gambling prevention: lessons learned from youth. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, 294–306. doi: 10.1007/s11469-006-9032-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Monaghan, S. (2008). Review of pop-up messages on electronic gaming machines as a proposed responsible gambling strategy. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 214–222. doi: 10.1007/s11469-007-9133-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Monaghan, S. (2009). Responsible gambling strategies for internet gambling: the theoretical and empirical base of using pop-up messages to encourage self-awareness. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 202–207. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Monaghan, S., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Impact of mode of display and message content of responsible gambling signs for electronic gaming machines on regular gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 67–88. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9150-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Monaghan, S., Derevensky, J., & Sklar, A. (2008). Impact of gambling advertisements and marketing on children and adolescents: policy recommendations to minimise harm. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 252–274. doi: 210.4309/jgi.2008.4322.4307.Google Scholar
  60. Moodie, C., & Reith, G. (2009). Responsible gambling signage on electronic gaming machines, before and after the implementation of the United Kingdom Gambling Act: an observational study. International Gambling Studies, 9(1), 5–17. doi: 10.1080/14459790802652183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Munoz, Y., Chebat, J.-C., & Suissa, J. A. (2010). Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 593–609. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9182-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Napolitano, F. (2003). The self-exclusion program: legal and clinical considerations. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(3), 303–315. doi: 10.1023/A:1024259521729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. National Gambling Impact Study Commission. (1999). Final report. Available from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/ngisc/reports/finrpt.html
  64. Nelson, S. E., Kleschinsky, J. H., LaBrie, R. A., Kaplan, S., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). One decade of self-exclusion: missouri casino self-excluders 4 to 10 years after enrollment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 129–144. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9157-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nixon, G., Leigh, G., & Nowatzki, N. (2006). Impacting attitudes towards gambling: a prison gambling awareness and prevention program. Journal of Gambling Issues, 17. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2006.17.14.
  66. Nowatzki, N. R., & Williams, R. J. (2002). Casino self-exclusion programmes: a review of the issues. International Gambling Studies, 2(1), 3–25. doi: 10.1080/14459790208732297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2006). Characteristics and gender differences among self-excluded casino problem gamblers: missouri data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(1), 81–99. doi: 10.1007/s10899-005-9004-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2008). Characteristics of problem gamblers 56 years of age or older: a statewide study of casino self-excluders. Psychology and Aging, 23(3), 577–584. doi: 10.1037/a0013233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Gambling motivations, money-limiting stratgegies, and precommitment preferences of problem versus non-problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 361–372. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9170-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Hare, C. (2004). Self-exclusion. Concept vs. reality. Gaming Law Review, 8(3), 189–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Patford, J. (2009). For worse, for poorer and in ill health: how women experience, understand and respond to a partner’s gambling problems. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 177–189. doi: 10.1007/s11469-008-9173-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shaffer, H. J., Forman, D. P., Scanlan, K. M., & Smith, F. (2000). Awareness of gambling-related problems, policies and educational programs among high school and college administrators. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(1), 93–101. doi: 10.1023/A:1009435518147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharpe, L., Walker, M., Coughlan, M.-J., Enersen, K., & Blaszczynski, A. (2005). Structural changes to electronic gaming machines as effective harm minization strategies for non-problem and problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(4), 503–520. doi: 10.1007/s10899-005-5560-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shead, N. W., Walsh, K., Taylor, A., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2011). Youth gambling prevention: can public service announcements featuring celebrity spokespersons be effective? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(2), 165–179. doi: 10.1007/s11469-009-9260-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stucki, S., & Rihs-Middel, M. (2007). Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: an update. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 245–257. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9031-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Takushi, R. Y., Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., Lostutter, T. W., Cronce, J. M., & Marlatt, G. A. (2004). Indicated prevention of problem gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 83–93. doi: 10.1023/B:JOGS.0000016705.58903.8f.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Taylor, L. M., & Hillyard, P. (2009). Gambling awareness for youth: an analysis of the “Don’t gamble away our future” program. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 250–261. doi: 10.1007/s11469-008-9184-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Townshend, P. (2007). Self-exclusion in a public health environment: an effective treatment option in New Zealand. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5, 390–395. doi: 10.1007/s11469-007-9075-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tremblay, N., Boutin, C., & Ladouceur, R. (2008). Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 505–518. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9110-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Turner, N. E., Wiebe, J., Falkowski-Ham, A., Kelly, J., & Skinner, W. (2005). Public awareness of responsible gambling and gambling behaviours in Ontario. International Gambling Studies, 5(1), 95–112. doi: 10.1080/14459790500098044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Turner, N., Macdonald, J., Bartoshuk, M., & Zangeneh, M. (2008a). The evaluation of a 1-h prevention program for problem gambling. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 238–243. doi: 10.1007/s11469-007-9121-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Turner, N. E., Macdonald, J., & Somerset, M. (2008b). Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 367–380. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9085-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wenzel, H. G., Oren, A., & Bakken, I. J. (2008). Gambling problems in the family—A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences. BMC Public Health, 8, 412. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Williams, R. J., & Connolly, D. (2006). Does learning about the mathematics of gambling change gambling behavior? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(1), 62–68. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.20.1.62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Williams, R. J., & Wood, R. T. (2004). The proportion of gaming revenue derived from problem gamblers: examining the issues in a Canadian context. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 4(1), 33–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2004.00033.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Williams, R. J., & Wood, R. T. (2007). The proportion of Ontario gambling revenue derived from problem gamblers. Canadian Public Policy, 33(3), 367–387. doi: 10.3138/cpp.33.3.367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Williams, R. J., West, B. L., & Simpson, R. I. (2007). Prevention of problem gambling: A comprehensive review of the evidence. Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from http://www.responsiblegambling.org/articles/2007-Prevention-OPGRC.pdf.
  88. Williams, R. J., Wood, R. T., & Currie, S. R. (2010). Stacked deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling. Journal of Primary Prevention, 3, 109–125. doi: 10.1007/s10935-010-0212-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wohl, M. J. A., Christie, K.-L., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2010). Animation-based education as a gambling prevention tool: correcting erroneous cognitions and reducing the frequency of exceeding limits among slots players. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 469–486. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9155-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu, A. M. S., & Tang, C. S.-k. (2012). Problem gambling of Chinese college students: application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(2), 315–324. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9250-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zheng, V., & Hung, E. P. W. (2011). Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9251-3.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bangkok UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations