Problem Gambling Prevention: Before, During, and After Measures
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This paper reviewed the literature on problem gambling prevention measures, and found two problem gambling prevention models: harm reduction and responsible gambling. Problem gambling prevention measures could be classified according to the temporal sequence of before, during and after gambling. Before measures involved attempts to change misconceptions and attitudes toward gambling; they tended to have limited effect on gambling behaviors. During measures required structural changes to gambling machines, and insertion of warning messages; they tended to have mixed results in terms of gambling behaviors. After measures included relapse prevention and self-exclusion; some self-excluded gamblers returned to gambling. Future research should focus on theory, longitudinal studies, internet gambling, and cross-national research. No prevention measure seemed to be more effective than the gamblers’ motivation to control their own gambling behaviors.
KeywordsProblem gambling Prevention measures Harm reduction Responsible gambling Self-exclusion
The author thanks Dr. Thomas J. Knutson for his assistance in the literature search, and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the earlier draft of this paper.
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