Advertisement

Gambling and the Multidimensionality of Accessibility: More Than Just Proximity to Venues

  • Anna Christina Thomas
  • Glen Bates
  • Susan Moore
  • Michael Kyrios
  • Denise Meredyth
  • Glenn Jessop
Article

Abstract

Accessibility to gambling has been linked to gambling behaviour but remains poorly understood. This study used data from semi-structured focus groups and interviews with 38 participants (Median age 42 years) to explore wider aspects of accessibility. People preferred venues which were open long hours and located close to home, work or regular routes, i.e., geo-temporal accessibility. This was particularly influential for problem gamblers. Social and personal accessibility related to venues as safe, social, easy entertainment experiences, and as an accessible retreat from life issues. The attraction of an accessible retreat was restricted to problem gamblers. Finally, low outlay games and easy access to money increased financial accessibility. Accessibility should therefore be considered multidimensional. Further, results suggested that while gambling as safe, social entertainment may be relatively harmless, the attraction of geo-temporal accessibility and a retreat from problems may encourage excessive gambling in some individuals.

Keywords

Gambling Accessibility Social Escape Environment 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research was funded by the Office of Gaming and Racing, The Department of Justice, Victoria as part of a wider research project.

Disclaimer

In December 2007, Dr Glenn Jessop left his role as Project Manager at Swinburne University of Technology to take up the role as Project Officer at the Office of Gaming and Racing. Dr Jessop conducted all work on this paper during his time as Project Manager at Swinburne University of Technology and has not undertaken any work on this paper since commencing with the Office of Gaming and Racing. The views expressed in this paper are those of Dr Jessop in his capacity as Project Manager at Swinburne University of Technology.

References

  1. Abbott, M. (2006). Do EGMs and problem gambling go together like a horse and carriage? Journal of the National Association for Gambling studies (Australia), 18(1), 7–38.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott, M., & Clarke, D. (2007). Prospective problem gambling research: contribution and potential. International Gambling Studies, 7(1), 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abbott, M., & Volberg, R. (1996). The New Zealand national survey of problem and pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(2), 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abbott, M., Volberg, R., & Ronnberg, S. (2004). Comparing the New Zealand and Swedish national surveys on gambling and problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(3), 237–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006). Gambling services, Australia, 2004–05. Retrieved 20 May 2008. from http://www.abs.gov.au.
  6. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., Sharpe, L., & Walker, M. (2001). The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling. Sydney: University of Sydney Gambling Research Unit.Google Scholar
  8. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breen, R. B., & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(1), 31–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Centre for Gambling Research. (2004). Validation of the Victorian gambling screen. Melbourne: Gambling Research Panel.Google Scholar
  11. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory a practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Clarke, D., Tse, S., Abbott, M., Townsend, S., Kingi, P., & Manaia, W. (2006). Key indicators of the transition from social to problem gambling. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). California: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Cox, B. J., Yu, N., Afifi, T., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(4), 213–217.Google Scholar
  15. Cresswell, J. W. (2009). Research design qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. California: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Delfabbro, P. (2008). Evaluating the effectiveness of a limited reduction in electronic gaming machine availability on perceived gambling behaviour and objective expenditure. International Gambling Studies, 8(2), 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickerson, M., & Baron, E. (2000). Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling. Addiction, 95(8), 1145–1159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eltridge, F., & Delfabbro, P. (2006). Evaluation of 2004 legislative amendments to reduce EGMs: Research report. Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority.Google Scholar
  19. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. J. (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final Report Available from www.ccsa.ca/pdf/ccsa-00805-200.pdf.
  20. GAMECS Project. (1999). Gambling among members of the ethnic communities in Sydney: Report on ‘Problem gambling and ethnic communities’ (Part 3). Sydney: Ethnic Communities’ Council of NSW.Google Scholar
  21. Giorgi, A., & Giorgi, B. (2008). Phenomenology. In J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology a practical guide to research methods (2nd ed., pp. 26–52). London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Grant, J. E., & Kim, S. W. (2002). Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43(1), 56–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Griffiths, M., & Delfabbro, P. (2001). The biopsychosocial approach to gambling: Contextual factors in research and clinical interventions. Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues: egambling, 5, no pagination specified. Retrieved from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue5/index.html.
  24. Griffiths, M., & Wood, R. T. A. (2000). Risk factors in adolescence: the case of gambling, videogame playing, and the internet. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(2/3), 199–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hing, N., & Breen, R. B. (2001). Profiling lady luck: an empirical study of gambling and problem gambling amongst female club members. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 47–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacques, C., & Ladouceur, R. (2006). A prospective study of the impact of opening a casino on gambling behaviours: 2 and 4-year follow ups. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(12), 764–773.Google Scholar
  27. Jacques, C., Ladouceur, R., & Ferland, F. (2000). Impact of availability on gambling: a longitudinal study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45(9), 810–816.Google Scholar
  28. KPMG Consulting. (2000). Longitudinal community impact study: 1999 Report. Melbourne: Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority.Google Scholar
  29. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Sevigny, S., & Cantinotti, M. (2005). Impact of the format, arrangement and availability of electronic gaming machines outside casinos on gambling. International Gambling Studies, 5(2), 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lightsey, O. R., & Hulsey, C. D. (2002). Impulsivity, coping, stress, and problem gambling among university students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marshall, D. (2005). The gambling environment and gambling behaviour: evidence from Richmond-Tweed, Australia. International Gambling Studies, 5(1), 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marshall, D., McMillen, J., Niemeyer, S., & Doran, B. (2004). Gaming Machine Accessibility and Use in Suburban Canberra: A Detailed Analysis of the Tuggeranong Valley. Centre for Gambling Research, Australian National University, Canberra, from http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/45188/1/Tuggeranong%20Final%20Report.pdf.
  33. McMillen, J., & Doran, B. (2006). Problem gambling and gaming machine density: socio-spatial analysis of three Victorian localities. International Gambling Studies, 6(1), 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McMillen, J., Marshall, D., Murphy, L., Lorenzen, S., & Waugh, B. (2004). Help-seeking by problem gamblers, friends and families: A focus on gender and cultural groups. Canberra: Centre for Gambling Research, The Australian National University.Google Scholar
  35. Minichiello, V., Aroni, R., Timewell, E., & Alexander, L. (1995). In-depth interviewing principles, techniques, analysis (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  36. New Focus Research. (2003). Study of clients of problem gambling services stage one report: The experiences of problem gamblers, their families and service providers. Melbourne: Gambling Research Panel.Google Scholar
  37. Petry, N. (2003). A comparison of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers based on preferred gambling activity. Addiction, 98, 645–655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Porter, J., Ungar, J., Frisch, G. R., & Chopra, R. (2004). Loneliness and life dissatisfaction in gamblers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 11, no pagination specified. Retrieved from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue11/index.html.
  39. Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries: Inquiry Report No. 10. Canberra: Ausinfo.Google Scholar
  40. Rennie, D. L. (2006). The grounded theory method: Application of a variant of its procedure of constant comparative analysis to psychotherapy research. In C. Fisher (Ed.), Qualitative research methods for psychologists introduction through empirical studies (pp. 59–78). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  41. Ricketts, T., & Macaskill, A. (2003). Gambling as emotion management: developing a grounded theory of problem gambling. Addiction Research and Theory, 11(6), 383–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robitaille, E., & Herjean, P. (2008). An analysis of the accessibility of video lottery terminals: the case of Montréal. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7(2).Google Scholar
  43. Rockloff, M. J., & Dyer, V. (2006). The four Es of problem gambling: a psychological measure of risk. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(4), 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rush, B., Veldhuizen, S., & Adlaf, E. (2007). Mapping the prevalence of problem gambling and its association with treatment accessibility and proximity to gambling venues Journal of Gambling Issues, 20, 193–214. Retrieved from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue20/index.htm.
  45. SA Centre for Economic Studies. (2005). Community impacts of electronic gaming machine gambling (part A) Final Report. Melbourne: Office of Gaming and Racing.Google Scholar
  46. Scannell, E. D., Quirk, M. M., Smith, K., Maddern, R., & Dickerson, M. (2000). Females’ coping styles and control over poker machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(4), 417–432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D., Nelson, S. E., & Stanton, M. V. (2004a). The road less travelled: moving from distribution to determinants in the study of gambling epidemiology. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 504–516.Google Scholar
  48. Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A., LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., Donato, A. N., & Stanton, M. V. (2004b). Toward a syndrome model of addiction: multiple expressions, common etiology. Harvard Review Psychiatry, 12, 367–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioural model of problem gambling a biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Shepherd, L., & Dickerson, M. (2001). Situational coping with loss and control over gambling in regular poker machine players. Australian Journal of Psychology, 53(3), 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology a practical guide to research methods (2nd ed.). London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  52. Surgey, D. (2000). Playing for time: Exploring the impacts of gambling on women. Melbourne: Department of Human Services.Google Scholar
  53. Thomas, A., & Moore, S. (2003). The interactive effects of avoidance coping and dysphoric mood on problem gambling for female and male gamblers. Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues: egambling, 8, no pagination specified. Retrieved from www.camh.net/egambling/issue8/.
  54. Thomas, A. C., Sullivan, G. B., & Allen, F. C. L. (2009). A theoretical model of EGM problem gambling: more than a cognitive escape. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thomas, S. (1995). More than a flutter: Women and problem gambling. Paper presented at the High stakes in the nineties: sixth national conference of the National Association for Gambling Studies, Fremantle.Google Scholar
  56. Trevorrow, K., & Moore, S. (1998). The association between loneliness, social isolation and women’s electronic gaming machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(3), 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority. (2000). The impact of gaming on specific cultural groups. Melbourne: Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority.Google Scholar
  58. Walker, M. (1992). The psychology of gambling. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  59. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M. O., & Hoffman, J. H. (2007). Type of gambling and availability as risk factors for problem gambling: a tobit regression analysis by age and gender. International Gambling Studies, 7(2), 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Welte, J. W., Wieczorek, W., Barnes, G., Tidwell, M., & Hoffman, J. (2004). The relationship of ecological and geographical factors to gambling behaviour and pathology. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(4), 405–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Welte, J. W., Wieczorek, W. F., Barnes, G. M., & Tidwell, M. O. (2006). Multiple risk factors for frequent and problem gambling: individual, social, and ecological. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(6), 1548–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). A qualitative investigation of problem gambling as an escape-based coping strategy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80, 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Christina Thomas
    • 1
  • Glen Bates
    • 1
  • Susan Moore
    • 1
  • Michael Kyrios
    • 1
  • Denise Meredyth
    • 1
  • Glenn Jessop
    • 1
  1. 1.Swinburne University of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations