Advertisement

An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

  • Jacinthe Dion
  • Delphine Collin-Vézina
  • Mireille De La Sablonnière
  • Marie-Pierre Philippe-Labbé
  • Tania Giffard
Article

Abstract

Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief that contribute to social problems, such as pathological gambling. The purpose of this brief paper is to report on the few available studies examining the connection between CSA and later pathological gambling. Results show that gambling is more prevalent among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal populations. Although no causal relationship has been confirmed, experiences of CSA may be related to the later development of pathological gambling among the general population as well as among Aboriginal peoples. However, this link appears complex and indirect and future researches are highly needed. Recommendations based on the implications of this link are proposed for prevention, treatment, and research.

Keywords

Aboriginal peoples Gambling Pathological gambling Child sexual abuse Trauma First Nations Prevalence 

References

  1. Abadian, S. (1999). From wasteland to homeland: Trauma and the renewal of indigenous peoples and their communities. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott, M. W., & Volberg, R. A. (1999). Gambling and problem gambling in the community: An international overview and critique. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Washington: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Auger, D., & Hewitt, D. (2000). Dream chaser: Alberta Aboriginal adult gambling prevalence study. Edmonton: Nechi Training, Research, & Health Promotions Insitute.Google Scholar
  5. Barker-Collo, S. L. (1999). Reported symptomatology of Native Canadian and Caucasian females sexually abused in childhood: a comparison. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14, 747–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beals, J., Novins, D. K., Spicer, P., Whitesell, N. R., Mitchell, C. M., & Manson, S. M. (2006). Help seeking for substance use problems in two American Indian reservation populations. Psychiatric Services, 57, 512–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Belanger, Y., Williams, R., Chief, P. D., & Shade, C. (2006). Aboriginal casinos: Who’s cashing in? Retrieved January 15, 2009, from http://www.rsc.ca/index.php?page=forums_aboriginal_casions&lang_id=1&page_id=207.
  8. Bernstein, D. P., Ahluvalia, T., Pogge, D., & Handelsman, L. (1997). Validity of the childhood trauma questionnaire in an adolescent psychiatric population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 340–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, D. W., & Moyer, T. (1998). Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior. Psychiatric Services, 49, 1434–1439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boughton, R., & Falenchuk, O. (2007). Vulnerability and comorbidity factors of female problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brave Heart, M. Y. H., & De Bruyn, L. (1998). The American holocaust: historical unresolved grief among native American Indians. National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research Journal, 8, 56–78.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: a review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cauce, A. M., Domenech-Rodriguez, M., Paradise, M., Cochran, B. N., Shea, J. M., Srebnik, D., et al. (2002). Cultural and contextual influences in mental health help seeking: a focus on ethnic minority youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 44–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Christenson, G. A., Faber, R. J., & deZwaan, M. (1994). Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55, 5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chui, W. H. (2008). True stories: migrant Vietnamese women with problem gambling in Brisbane, Queensland. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 8, 276–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciarrocchi, J., & Richardson, R. (1989). Profile of compulsive gamblers in treatment: update and comparisons. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collin-Vézina, D., Dion, J., & Trocmé, N. (2009). Sexual abuse in Canadian Aboriginal communities: a broad review of conflicting evidence. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 7, 27–47. Retrieved July 24, 2009, from http://www.pimatisiwin.com/online/?page_id=593.Google Scholar
  18. Cox, B. J., Yu, N., Olfrey, T., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 213–217.Google Scholar
  19. Cozzetto, D. A., & Larocque, B. W. (1996). Compulsive gambling in the Indian community: a North Dakota case study. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 20, 73–86.Google Scholar
  20. Culin, S. (1973). Games of the North American Indians. New York: AMS.Google Scholar
  21. Currie, C., & Stevens, R. (2007). Gambling research reveals: the placement of casinos in Alberta’s Aboriginal communities: an interview with Cheryl Currie. Alberta Gaming Research Institute Newsletter, 7, 1–4.Google Scholar
  22. De Coteau, T., Anderson, J., & Hope, D. (2006). Adapting manualized treatments: treating anxiety disorders among Native Americans. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13, 304–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickerson, M., McMillen, J., Hallebone, E., Volberg, R., & Woolley, R. (1997). Definition and incidence of problem gambling, including the socio-economic distribution of gamblers. Melbourne: Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority.Google Scholar
  24. Ellenbogen, S., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (2007). A cross-cultural study of gambling behaviour among adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 25–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans-Campbell, T., Lindhorst, T., Huang, B., & Walters, K. L. (2006). Interpersonal violence in the lives of urban American Indian and Alaska Native women: implications for health, mental health, and help-seeking. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1416–1422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2008). Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 607–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Center on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  28. First Nations Inuit, & Aboriginal Health Branch. (1998). National Native alcohol and drug abuse program (NNADAP)—general review 1998—final report. Ottawa: Health Canada.Google Scholar
  29. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders: Clinician Version (SCID-CV). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  30. Freeman, K. A., & Morris, T. L. (2001). A review of conceptual models explaining the effects of child sexual abuse. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 6, 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gabriel, K. (1996). Gambler way: Indian gaming in mythology, history, and archaeology in North America. Boulder: Johnson Books.Google Scholar
  32. Gorey, K. M., & Leslie, D. R. (1997). The prevalence of child sexual abuse: integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gillis, A., McDonald, J., & Weatherly, J. N. (2008). American Indians and non-Indians playing a slot-machine simulation: effects of sensation seeking and payback percentage. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 15, 18–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamby, S. (2008). The path of helpseeking: perceptions of law enforcement among American Indian victims of sexual assault. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 36, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1152–1168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hébert, M., Tourigny, M., Cyr, M., McDuff, P., & Joly, J. (in press). Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and timing of disclosure in a representative sample of adults from the province of Quebec. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  37. Henry, S. L. (1996). Pathological gambling: etiologic considerations and treatment efficacy of eye movement desensitization/reprocessing. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hewitt, D. (1994). Spirit of bingoland: A study of problem gambling among Alberta Native people. Edmonton: Nechi Training, Research, & Health Promotions Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Hewitt, D. (1995). Spirit of bingoland: Problem gambling in two Ontario First Nation communities: Chippewas of Mnjikaning (Rama) & Chippewas of Sarnia. Edmonton: Nechi Training, Research, & Health Promotions Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Hewitt, D., & Auger, D. (1995). Firewatch on Aboriginal adolescent gambling. Edmonton: Nechi Training, Research, & Health Promotions Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Hobbs, M. C. (2007). Culturally-derived values and beliefs as correlates of risk for problem gambling. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Windsor, Ontario.Google Scholar
  42. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: a new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacobs, D. F. (1989). A general theory of addictions: Rationale for and evidence supporting a new approach for understanding and treating addictive behaviors. In H. Shaffer, S. Stein, B. Gambino & T. Cummings (Eds.), Compulsive gambling: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 35–64). Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  44. Jacobs, D. (1999). Jacobs neglect and abuse protocol. Loma Linda: author.Google Scholar
  45. Jacobs, D. (2002). Jacobs neglect, abandonment, and abuse protocol. Loma Linda: author.Google Scholar
  46. Jacobs, D. F. (2008). Growth of Aboriginal casinos in North America: Future prospects. Paper presented at the Responsible Gambling Council Discovery 2008 Conference.Google Scholar
  47. Jumper, S. A. (1995). A meta-analysis of the relationship of child sexual abuse to adult psychological adjustment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 715–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaplan, G., & Davis, B. (1997). Gambling, alcohol & others drugs. Prevalence & implications of dual problem clients. Manitoba: Addictions foundation of Manitoba.Google Scholar
  49. Kausch, O., Rugle, L., & Rowland, D. Y. (2006). Lifetime histories of trauma among pathological gamblers. The American Journal on Addictions, 15, 35–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Meyer William, L., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children: a review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 164–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Evelyn, B., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the national comorbidity survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ladouceur, R. (2000). Le Jeu excessif : Comprendre et vaincre le gambling. Montreal: Éditions de l’Homme.Google Scholar
  53. Ladouceur, R. (2004). Gambling: the hidden addiction. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 501–503.Google Scholar
  54. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., & Giroux, I. (1999). Prevalence of problem gambling: a replication study 7 years later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 802–804.Google Scholar
  55. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lesieur, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. J. (1995). Gambler’s Self-Report Inventory (GSRI). Unpublished assessment instrument.Google Scholar
  57. MacMillan, H. L., Fleming, J. E., Trocmé, N., Boyle, M. H., Wong, M., Racine, Y. A., et al. (1997). Prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse in the community: results from the Ontario health supplement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 131–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McDougall, C. L., McDonald, J., & Weatherly, J. N. (2007). The gambling behavior of American Indian and non-Indian participants: effects of the actions and ethnicity of a confederate. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 14, 59–74.Google Scholar
  59. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., et al. (1992). The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 199–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moore, T. L., & Jadlos, T. (2002). The etiology of pathological gambling: A study to enhance understanding of causal pathways as a step towards improving prevention and treatment. Wilsonville: Oregon Gambling Addiction Treatment Foundation.Google Scholar
  61. Morency, J., & Kistabish, R. (2001). Intervention en milieu autochtone: Comprendre le passé pour mieux agir aujourd’hui. Psychologie Québec, 18, 14–18.Google Scholar
  62. Muckle, F., & Dion, J. (2008). Les facteurs de résilience et de guérison chez les autochtones victimes d’agression sexuelle. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie. Spécial Jeunes et agressions sexuelles : Modalités et évaluation de l’intervention, 29, 59–72.Google Scholar
  63. National Council of Welfare. (1996). Gambling in Canada. Ottawa: National Council of Welfare.Google Scholar
  64. Neumann, D. A., Houskamp, B. H., Pollock, V. E., & Brière, J. (1996). The long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse in women: a meta-analytic review. Child Maltreatment, 1, 6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oakes, J., & Currie, C. (2004). Gambling and problem gambling in First Nations communities. Guelph: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Center.Google Scholar
  66. Petry, N. M. (2005). Pathological gambling: Etiology, comorbidity, and treatment. Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Petry, N. M., & Steinberg, K. L. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in male and female treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 226–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Philippe, F. D. R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Prevalence rates of gambling problems in Montreal, Canada: a look at old adults and the role of passion. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 275–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Polusny, M. A., & Follette, V. M. (1995). Long-term correlates of child sexual abuse: theory and review of the empirical literature. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 4, 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Polzin, P. E., Baldridge, J., Doyle, D., Sylvester, J. T., Volberg, R. A., & Moore, W. L. (1998). Gambling-Montana style. Montana Business Quarterly, 36, 2–13.Google Scholar
  71. Putnam, F. W. (2003). Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 269–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. (2004). Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Reading, J., Svenson, K., O’Neil, J., Young, K., Elias, B., MacMillan, H., et al. (eds). (2000). First Nations and Inuit regional health survey. St. Regis: First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey National Steering Committee.Google Scholar
  74. RHS National Team (Ed). (2007a). First nations regional health survey phase 2—adult questionnaire. Ottawa: First Nations Information Governance Committee.Google Scholar
  75. RHS National Team (Ed). (2007b). First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS) 2002/03: Results for adults, youth and children living in First Nations communities. Ottawa: First Nations Information Governance Committee.Google Scholar
  76. Robin, R. W., Chester, B., Rasmussen, J. K., Jaranson, J. M., & Goldman, D. (1997). Factors influencing utilization of mental health and substance abuse services by American Indian men and women. Psychiatric Services, 48, 826–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Robins, L., Helzer, J., Cottler, L., & Goldring, E. (1988). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III Revised (DIS-III-R). St. Louis: Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  78. Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Kapp, J. M., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., et al. (2007). Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 72–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining meta-analytic prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 168–172.Google Scholar
  80. Shaffer, H. J., & Korn, D. A. (2002). Gambling and related mental disorders: a public health analysis. Annual Review of Public Health, 23, 171–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: a research synthesis. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1369–1376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, G. J., & Wynne, H. (2002). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta using the Canadian problem gambling index. Edmonton: Alberta Gaming Research Institute.Google Scholar
  83. Specker, S. M., Carlson, G. A., Edmonson, K. M., Johnson, P. E., & Marcotte, M. (1996). Psychopathology in pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taber, J. I., McCormick, R. A., & Ramirez, L. F. (1987). The prevalence and impact of major life stressors among pathological gamblers. Substance Use & Misuse, 22, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tourigny, M., Gagné, M.-H., Joly, J., & Chartrand, M.-È. (2006). Prévalence et cooccurrence de la violence envers les enfants dans la population québécoise. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 97, 109–113.Google Scholar
  86. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2008). Indians residential schools. Retrieved January 15, 2009, from http://www.trc-cvr.ca/.
  87. Volberg, R. A. (1994). The prevalence and demographics of pathological gamblers: implications for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 237–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Volberg, R. A. (2001). Gambling and problem gambling in North Dakota: A replication study, 1992 to 2002. Northampton: Gemini Research, Ltd.Google Scholar
  89. Volberg, R. A., & Abbott, M. W. (1997). Gambling and problem gambling among indigenous peoples. Substance Use & Misuse, 32, 1525–1538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walker, M. (1992). The psychology of gambling. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  91. Walker, M., Schellink, T., & Anjoul, F. (2008). Explaining Why People Gamble. In M. Zangeneh, A. Blaszczynski & N. E. Turner (Eds.), In the pursuit of winning: Problem gambling theory, research and treatment (pp. 11–31). New York: Springer Science and Business Media.Google Scholar
  92. Wardman, D., El-Guebaly, N., & Hodgins, D. (2001). Problem and pathological gambling in North American Aboriginal populations: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 81–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Westermeyer, J., Canive, J., Garrard, J., Thuras, P., & Thompson, J. (2005). Lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling among American Indian and Hispanic American veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 860–866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Whitbeck, L. B., Chen, X., Hoyt, D. R., & Adams, G. W. (2004). Discrimination, historical loss and enculturation: culturally specific risk and resiliency factors for alcohol abuse among American Indians. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 409–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Williams, R., Wynne, H., Nixon, G., & Frank, L. (2005). Using participatory action research to study Canadian Aboriginal gambling. Paper presented at the 6th European Conference on Gambling Studies and Policy Issues. Malmo, Sweden.Google Scholar
  96. Winters, K. C., & Kushner, M. G. (2003). Treatment issues pertaining to pathological gamblers with a comorbid disorder. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(3), 261–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Winters, K., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wynne, H. (2002). Gambling and problem gambling in Saskatchewan. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  99. Wynne, H., & McCready, J. (2005a). Examining gambling and problem gambling in Ontario Aboriginal communities: Final summary report. Guelph: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
  100. Wynne, H., & McCready, J. (2005b). Examining gambling and problem gambling in Ontario Aboriginal communities: Five community final research reports. Guelph: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
  101. Young, M., Barnes, T., Stevens, M., Paterson, M., & Morris, M. (2007). The changing landscape of indigenous gambling in Northern Australia: current knowledge and future directions. International Gambling Studies, 7, 327–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zangeneh, M., Sageghi, N., & Littman-Sharp, N. (2004). Perceptions and attitudes about gambling, problem gambling and help-seeking behavior among Iranians in Toronto- A small qualitative study. Shiraz E-Medical Journal, 5.Google Scholar
  103. Zitzow, D. (1996a). Comparative study of problematic gambling behaviors between American Indian and non-Indian adolescents within and near a northern plains reservation. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 7, 14–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Zitzow, D. (1996b). Comparative study of problematic gambling behaviors between American Indian and non-Indian adults in a northern plains reservation. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 7, 27–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacinthe Dion
    • 1
  • Delphine Collin-Vézina
    • 2
  • Mireille De La Sablonnière
    • 3
  • Marie-Pierre Philippe-Labbé
    • 4
  • Tania Giffard
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Education and Psychology and Centre de recherche sur les problèmes conjugaux et les agressions sexuelles (CRIPCAS)Université du Québec à ChicoutimiSaguenayCanada
  2. 2.Social Work Department and Centre de recherche sur les problèmes conjugaux et les agressions sexuelles (CRIPCAS)McGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Social Work DepartmentMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Université du Québec à ChicoutimiSaguenayCanada
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversité de Trois-RivièresTrois-RivièresCanada

Personalised recommendations