Titanium-Coated Dual-Core D-Shaped SPR-Based PCF for Hemoglobin Sensing


Two new dual-core D-shaped SPR (surface plasmon resonance) PCFs (photonic crystal fibers) (DCD-S-SPR PCF) with a splitting barrier between the twin cores are proposed for the detection and sensing of the different bio-samples of human blood. Moreover, each proposed model is displaying a promising performance for different optical parameters, such as refractive index (RI), confinement loss (αc) birefringence (Bi), coupling length (Lc), transmittance (Tx), wavelength sensitivity (Sw), amplitude sensitivity (Sa), resolution, and figure of merit (FOM). However, the observation is done by the finite element method (FEM) for the assumed wavelength range from 2.1 to 3 μm and provides the comparison between two DCD-S-SPR PCF models. The performance indicator measurements for model 1 and model 2 corresponding to the wavelength sensitivity, amplitude sensitivity, resolution, transmittance variance, FOM, and detection limit of each proposed DCD-S-SPR PCF are, respectively, as follows: 12,320.10 nm/RIU, − 230 RIU−1, 1.5 × 10−2 RIU, 4342.34 dB/RIU, 190, 0.21; and 18,550 nm/RIU, − 360 RIU−1, 1.0 × 10−1 RIU, 6071.42 dB/RIU, 250, 0.07. Also, the satisfactory results of those parameters of each hemoglobin sensor confirm the better sensing performance, and the hemoglobin sensor proves itself a tough competitor in the field of PCF-based bio-sensing application.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Otto A (1968) Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection. Z Phys A: Hadrons Nucl 216(4):398–410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Caucheteur C, Shevchenko Y, Shao LY, Wuilpart M, Albert J (2011) High-resolution interrogation of tilted fiber grating SPR sensors from polarization properties measurement. Opt Express 19(2):1656–1664

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yanase Y, Hiragun T, Yanase T, Kawaguchi T, Ishii K, Hide M (2013) Application of SPR imaging sensor for detection of individual living cell reactions and clinical diagnosis of type I allergy. Allergol Int 62(2):163–169

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Jorgenson RC, Yee SS (1993) A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance. Sensor Actuat Biol Chem 12(3):213–220

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Fan X, White IM, Shopova SI, Zhu H, Suter JD, Sun Y (2008) Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review. Anal Chim Acta 620(1–2):8–26

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Krotkiewska B, Pasek M, Krotkiewski H (2002) Interaction of glycophorin A with lectins as measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Acta Biochim Pol 49(2):481–490

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zhang L, Fang M (2010) Nanomaterials in pollution trace detection and environmental improvement. Nano Today 5(2):128–142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hassani A, Skorobogatiy M (2006) Design of the microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensors with enhanced microfluidics. Opt Express 14(24):11616–11621

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Dash JN, Jha R (2014) Graphene-based birefringent photonic crystal fiber sensor using surface plasmon resonance. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 26(11):1092–1095

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Yao J, Yang X, Wang M, Lu Y (2015) Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on hollow-core PCFs filled with silver nanowires. Electron Lett 51(21):1675–1677

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rifat AA, Mahdiraji GA, Chow DM, Shee YG, Ahmed R, Adikan FRM (2015) Photonic crystal fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensor with selective analyte channels and graphene-silver deposited core. Sensors (Basel) 15(5):11499–11510

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Huang T (2017) Highly sensitive SPR sensor based on D-shaped photonic crystal fiber coated with indium tin oxide at near-infrared wavelength. Plasmonics 12(3):583–588

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wu T, Shao Y, Wang Y, Cao S, Cao W, Zhang F, Liao C, He J, Huang Y, Hou M, Wang Y (2017) Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on gold-coated side-polished hexagonal structure photonic crystal fiber. Opt Express 25(17):20313–20322

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Dash JN, Jha R (2016) Highly sensitive D shaped PCF sensor based on SPR for near IR. Opt Quant Electron 48(2):137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tian M, Lu P, Chen L, Lv C, Liu D (2012) All-solid D-shaped photonic fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance. Opt Commun 285(6):1550–1554

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    An G, Li S, Qin W, Zhang W, Fan Z, Bao Y (2014) High-sensitivity refractive index sensor based on D-shaped photonic crystal fiber with rectangular lattice and nanoscale gold film. Plasmonics 9(6):1355–1360

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Rageh, AF, Hafez, AM, Azzam, SI, Heikal AM, Obayya, SSA (2016) March. Ultra-compact plasmonic polarization splitter based on dual-core D-shaped PCF. In 2016 IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Information Technology and Systems (ICWITS) and Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES) (pp. 1-2). IEEE.

  18. 18.

    Dash JN, Jha R (2015) On the performance of graphene-based D-shaped photonic crystal fibre biosensor using surface plasmon resonance. Plasmonics 10(5):1123–1131

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Suganthy M, Paul BK, Ahmed K, Islam MI, Jabin MA, Bahar AN, Mani Rajan MS (2019) Analysis of optical sensitivity of analytes in aqua solutions. Optik 178:970–977

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mishra AK, Mishra SK, Gupta BD (2015) SPR based fiber optic sensor for refractive index sensing with enhanced detection accuracy and figure of merit in the visible region. Opt Commun 344:86–91

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to all of the subjects who have contributed to this research.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kawsar Ahmed.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions. The authors have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jabin, M.A., Ahmed, K., Rana, M.J. et al. Titanium-Coated Dual-Core D-Shaped SPR-Based PCF for Hemoglobin Sensing. Plasmonics 14, 1601–1610 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11468-019-00961-6

Download citation


  • Hemoglobin sensor
  • Dual-core D-shaped PCF
  • Birefringence
  • Transmittance
  • Sensitivity
  • Resolution