, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 519–524 | Cite as

Low-Cost Plasmonic Carbon Spacer for Surface Plasmon-Coupled Emission Enhancements and Ethanol Detection: a Smartphone Approach

  • Pradeep Kumar Badiya
  • Venkatesh Srinivasan
  • Sai Prasad Naik
  • Bebeto Rai
  • Narendra Reddy
  • S Prathap Chandran
  • V Sai Muthukumar
  • Muralikrishna Molli
  • Sai Sathish Ramamurthy


Surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) has led to significant advancements in analytical techniques on account of its unique characteristics that include highly polarized photon-sorting ability. In this study, we report the use of a low-cost activated carbon as a plasmonic spacer in the SPCE substrate for achieving 30-fold enhancement in fluorescence emission. We extend the use of this spacer in the presence of Rhodamine B Base, a lactone dye as the sensing material for smartphone-based ethanol detection on the SPCE platform. Ethanol detection from 1 to 6% concentration highlights the potential use of this technique in monitoring fermentation processes.


Ethanol sensing Surface plasmon-coupled emission Activated carbon Fluorescence enhancement Plasmonic spacer engineering 



Surface plasmon-coupled emission


Activated carbon


Rhodamine B Base


Poly(methyl methacrylate)


In-plane lattice constant



S.S.R. and P.K.B acknowledge the support from DBT-Ramalingaswamy fellowship (102/IFD/SAN/776/2015-16), DST-Fast Track, and UGC-BSR fellowship, Govt. of India. S.P.C acknowledges financial support from DST Inspire Faculty Award. Authors thank the Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, for providing access to the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic facility purchased under financial support from DST-FIST. Guidance from Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba is also gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradeep Kumar Badiya
    • 1
  • Venkatesh Srinivasan
    • 1
  • Sai Prasad Naik
    • 1
  • Bebeto Rai
    • 1
  • Narendra Reddy
    • 2
  • S Prathap Chandran
    • 1
  • V Sai Muthukumar
    • 3
  • Muralikrishna Molli
    • 3
  • Sai Sathish Ramamurthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Plasmonics Laboratory, Department of ChemistrySri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi NilayamAnantapurIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Incubation Innovation Research and ConsultancyJyothy Institute of TechnologyBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsSri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher LearningAnantapurIndia

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