Deep Subwavelength Confinement of Mid-infrared Plasmon Modes by Coupling Graphene-Coated Nanowire with a Dielectric Substrate
In this paper, we report the realization of highly confined mid-infrared plasmon modes by coupling freestanding graphene-coated nanowire with a dielectric substrate. It is shown that the presence of a nearby dielectric substrate not only breaks the azimuthal symmetry of the plasmon modes but also has a strong impact on the coupling and hybridization of these modes. The degree of interactions with the substrate depends on the permittivity of the substrate, the key structural parameters of the nanowire, the operation frequency and chemical potential of graphene, as well as the gap distance between the nanowire and supporting substrate. It is found that compared to freestanding case, using a high-index substrate and adjusting the gap distance can result in the following benefits: (i) an ultra-small mode area and a long propagation length can be realized simultaneously, (ii) a stronger field enhancement in the low-index gap region and improved figure of merit can be achieved, and (iii) a huge reduction in the crosstalk can be made which is crucial for the realization of high-density integrated nanophotonic devices.
KeywordsGraphene Surface plasmons Plasmonics Waveguides
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