, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 935–944 | Cite as

Maximizing Absorption and Scattering by Dipole Particles

  • Sergei Tretyakov


This is a review and tutorial paper which discusses the fundamental limitations on the maximal power which can be received, absorbed, and scattered by an electrically small electrically polarizable particle and infinite periodical arrays of such particles.


Dipole Extinction Absorption Scattering Plasmonics 



Most of this text was written when the author was visiting the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Fotonik), in January–April 2013. Financial support from the Otto Mønsted Foundation and Aalto School of Electrical Engineering is appreciated. Special thanks to the host, prof. A. Lavrinenko, to Dr. A. Andryieuski for sharing his knowledge of the optical literature, and to prof. O. Breinbjerg for explaining that the reciprocity relation between the antenna gain and effective area can be used to find the maximum received power (Section 1). The last stages of this work got inspirations from discussions with prof. A. Alù (University of Texas at Austin), who kindly shared a preprint [15] with the author. Useful discussions with prof. C. Simovski (Aalto University) of extinction by particles in regular arrays are also acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    Balanis (1997) Antenna theory: analysis and design, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bohren CF, Huffman DR (1983) Radiation and scattering of light by small particles. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohren CF (1983) How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it? Am J Phys 51(4):323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paul H, Fischer R (1983) Light absorption by a dipole. Sov Phys Uspekhi 26(10):923–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    TribelskyM(1984) Resonant scattering of light by small particles. Zh Exp Teor Fiz 86:915–926Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zumofen G, Mojarad NM, Sandoghdar V, Agio M (2008) Perfect absorption of light by an oscillating dipole. Phys Rev Lett 101:180404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tretyakov S (2003) Analytical modeling in applied electromagnetics. Artech House, NorwoodGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Munk B (2000) Frequency selective surfaces: theory and design. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Slovick B, Zhi Gang Yu, Berding M, Krishnamurthy S (2013) Perfect dielectric-metamaterial reflector. Phys Rev B 88:165116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwon D-H, Pozar DM (2009) Analysis of maximum received power by arbitrary lossless arrays.In: Antennas and propagation society international symposium, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kwon D-H, Pozar DM (2009) Optimal characteristics of an arbitrary receive antenna. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 57(12):3720–3727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bach Andersen J, Frandsen A (2005) Absorption efficiency of receiving antennas. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 53(9):2843–2849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liberal I, Ziolkowski RW (2013) Analytical and equivalent circuit models to elucidate power balance in scattering problems. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 61(5):2714–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liberal I, Ederra I, Gonzalo R, Ziolkowski RW (2013) A multipolar analysis of near-field absorption and scattering processes. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 61(10):5184–5199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fleury R, Soric J, Alù A (2013) Physical bounds on absorption and scattering for cloaked sensors. arXiv:1309.3619
  16. 16.
    Ra’di Y, Tretyakov SA (2013) Balanced and optimal bianisotropic particles: maximizing power extracted from electromagnetic fields. New J Phys 15:053008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Belov PA, Maslovski SI, Simovski KR, Tretyakov SA (2003) A condition imposed on the electromagnetic polarizability of a bianisotropic scatterer. Tech Phys Lett 29(9):718–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tretyakov SA, Maslovski SI, Belov PA (2003) An analytical model of metamaterials based on loaded wire dipoles. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 51(10):2652–2658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansen RC (2006) Electrically small, superdirective and superconducting antennas. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tribelsky M, Lukyanchuk B (2006) Anomalous light scattering by small particles. Phys Rev Lett 97:263902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang T, Chen H, Luo X, Ma H (2008) Superscatterer: enhancement of scattering with complementary media. Opt Express 16(22):18545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ng J, Chen H, Chan CT (2009) Metamaterial frequency-selective superabsorber. Opt Lett 34(5):644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ruan Z, Fan S (2010) Superscattering of light from subwavelength nanostructures. Phys Rev Lett 105:013901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ruan Z, Fan S (2011) Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres. Appl Phys Lett 98:043101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steshenko S, Capolino F (2009) Single dipole approximation for modeling collections of nanoscatterers. In: Capolino F (ed) Metamaterials handbook: theory and phenomena of metamaterials. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alù A, Engheta N (2009) Cloaking a sensor. Phys Rev Lett 102:233901CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radio Science and EngineeringAalto UniversityAaltoFinland

Personalised recommendations