Recent progress on borophene: Growth and structures
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Boron is the neighbor of carbon on the periodic table and exhibits unusual physical characteristics derived from electron-deficient, highly delocalized covalent bonds. As the nearest neighbor of carbon, boron is in many ways similar to carbon, such as having a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp2 hybridization. Hence, boron could be capable of forming monolayer structural analogues of graphene. Although many theoretical papers have reported finding two-dimensional allotropes of boron, there had been no experimental evidence for such atom-thin boron nanostructures until 2016. Recently, the successful synthesis of single-layer boron (referred to as borophene) on the Ag(111) substrate opens the era of boron nanostructures. In this brief review, we will discuss the progress that has been made on borophene in terms of synthetic techniques, characterizations and the atomic models. However, borophene is just in infancy; more efforts are expected to be made in future on the controlled synthesis of quality samples and tailoring its physical properties.
Keywordsborophene molecular beam epitaxy scanning tunneling microscopy atomic model density functional theory
This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0300904, 2016YFA0202301, 2013CBA01601, and 2013CB921702), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11761141013, 11674366, and 11674368), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. XDB07020100 and XDPB06).
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