Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 107–119 | Cite as

Fabrication of scaffolds in tissue engineering: A review

  • Peng Zhao
  • Haibing Gu
  • Haoyang Mi
  • Chengchen Rao
  • Jianzhong Fu
  • Lih-sheng TurngEmail author
Review Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Near-net Shaping Technology


Tissue engineering (TE) is an integrated discipline that involves engineering and natural science in the development of biological materials to replace, repair, and improve the function of diseased or missing tissues. Traditional medical and surgical treatments have been reported to have side effects on patients caused by organ necrosis and tissue loss. However, engineered tissues and organs provide a new way to cure specific diseases. Scaffold fabrication is an important step in the TE process. This paper summarizes and reviews the widely used scaffold fabrication methods, including conventional methods, electrospinning, three-dimensional printing, and a combination of molding techniques. Furthermore, the differences among the properties of tissues, such as pore size and distribution, porosity, structure, and mechanical properties, are elucidated and critically reviewed. Some studies that combine two or more methods are also reviewed. Finally, this paper provides some guidance and suggestions for the future of scaffold fabrication.


tissue engineering scaffolds electrospinning 3D printing molding techniques conventional methods 


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The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LZ18E050002), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51521064), the National Natural Science Foundation Council of China (Grant Nos. 51475420 and 51635006), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2017QNA4003).


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haibing Gu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haoyang Mi
    • 3
  • Chengchen Rao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jianzhong Fu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lih-sheng Turng
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic SystemsZhejiang UniversityZhejiangChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of 3D Printing Process and Equipment of Zhejiang ProvinceZhejiang UniversityZhejiangChina
  3. 3.Wisconsin Institute for DiscoveryUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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