Skip to main content

Information media, social imagination, and public society during the Ming and Qing dynasties

Abstract

The flourishing development of media during the Ming and Qing eras affected the building of new methods of interpersonal interactions between an individual and society as well as between the people themselves. By virtue of media like Dibao 邸报 (court liaison reports), drama or novels, interpersonal interactions could reach beyond space and object restrictions. These media could thus rapidly spread particular or individual news to the general public, making those who were absent from the scene feel as if they were “experiencing” it, and at the same time allowing them to “participate in” social affairs beyond their knowledge. In this way, mass media surpassed the individual living sphere, ultimately forming a “public sphere.” Under the influence of these media, each individual could join this “public sphere” and be connected with the imagined “general public.” That is to say, mass media created an “imagined society.” In addition to a personal limited “real world,” there was an immense “fictitious world” for everyone to take part in and experience. Accordingly, interactions between people developed into interactions between each individual and the abstract society, which could cut across space limitations, and establish an immense “public society.”

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Community: Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Taipei: Shibao wenhua, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cao Jiaju 曹家驹. Shuo meng 说梦 (Talks about dream). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen Baoliang 陈宝良. “Mingdai minjian yulun tanxi” 明代民间舆论探析 (Investigations into the popular opinion of the common people during the Ming era). Jianghan luntan 江汉论坛 (Jianghan Forum), 1992, (2).

  • Chen Zilong 陈子龙. Chen Zilong shiji 陈子龙诗集 (Collected poetry of Chen Zilong). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chu Renhuo 褚人穫. Jianhu buji 坚瓠补集 (The extension of the Anthology of the Sturdy Wine Vessel). Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cui Xiangchuan 崔象川. Baigui zhi 白圭志 (Tale of the white jade scepter). Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi chubanshe, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deng Zhicheng 邓之诚. Gudong suoji 骨董琐记 (Miscellaneous record of the antique). Beijing: Beijing chubanshe, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dong Han 董含. Sangang shilüe 三冈识略 (The brief view made in Sangang). The version copied from Juzhenben by the publishing house of Shenbao.

  • Dong Langshi 董阆石. Chunxiang zhuibi 莼乡赘笔 (Writings from Chun Village). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gu Gongxie 顾公燮. Danwu biji 丹午笔记 (Jottings of red noon). Suzhou: Jiangsu guji chubanshe, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gu Yanwu 顾炎武. “Sanchao jishi quewen xu” 三朝记事阙文序 (Preface to the writings of the matters of three courts). In Gu Tinglin shiwen ji 顾亭林诗文集 (Collection of Gu Yanwu’s poem and prose). Taipei: Hanjing wenhua shiye youxian gongsi, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gui Zhuang 归庄. Gui Zhuang ji 归庄集 (Collected writings of Gui Zhuang). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang Zongxi 黄宗羲. Mingru xue’an 明儒学案 (Cases of the Ming Confucian scholars). Taipei: Huashi chubanshe, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huanxi yuanjia 欢喜冤家 (The happy foe). Chongzhen 13 (1640). In Hou Zhongyi 侯忠义 et al. eds. Zhongguo gudai zhenxiben xiaoshuo 中国古代珍稀本小说 (Selections of rare Chinese classical novels),II. Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi chubanshe, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jiao Xun 焦循. Jushuo 剧说 (Talks on plays). In Zhongguo gudian xiqu lunzhu jicheng 中国古典戏曲论著集成 (Collection of classical Chinese plays), Vol. 8. Beijing: Zhongguo xiju chubanshe, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jin Yaoji 金耀基. Cong chuantong dao xiandai 从传统到现代 (From tradition to modernity). Taipei: Shibao wenhua gongsi, 1978.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kessler, Lawrence D. “Chinese scholars and the early Manchu state,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1971, 31.

  • Li Diaoyuan 李调元. Danmo lu 淡墨录 (Light ink records). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li Qing 李清. Sanyuan biji 三垣笔记 (Jottings of the three walls). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li Rihua 李日华. Weishuixuan riji 味水轩日记 (Diary of Tasting Water Pavilion). In Beijing tushuguan guji zhenben congkan 北京图书馆古籍珍本丛刊 (Collection of rare ancient books from Beijing Library), Vol. 7. Beijing: Shumu wenxian chubanshe, n.d.

  • Li Wenzhi 李文治. “Shuihuzhuan yu wanMing shehui” «水浒传»与晚明社会 (Water Margin and late Ming society). Wenshi zazhi 文史杂志 (Magazine of History and Literature), 1942, (2): 3.

  • Li Zhi 李贽. Xu fenshu 续焚书 (Update to burnt books). Taipei: Hanjing chuban shiye gongsi, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liang Qichao 梁启超. “Lun xiaoshuo yu qunzhi zhi guanxi” 论小说与群治之关系 (Debating the relationship novels have with mass control). In Yinbingshi wenji 饮冰室文集 (Collected writings of drinking ice room), Vol. 10. Taipei: Zhonghua shuju, 1960.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin Liyue 林丽月. “Li Sancai yu Donglin dang” 李三才与东林党 (Li Sancai and the Donglin Faction). Guoli Taiwan shifan daxue lishi xuebao 国立台湾师范大学历史学报 (History Journal of National Taiwan Normal University), 1981, 9.

  • Liu Xianting 刘献廷. Guangyang zaji 广阳杂记 (Miscellaneous jottings of Guangyang). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu Yongqiang 刘勇强. “MingQing Dibao yu wenxue zhi guanxi” 明清邸报与文学之关系 (The relationship between literature and Dibao in the Ming and Qing period). Xueren 学人 (Scholar), 1992, (3).

  • Liu Zongzhou 刘宗周. Renpu leiji 人谱类记 (Encyclopaedic notes of personages). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu Shiyi 陆世仪. Fushe jilüe 复社纪略 (Brief records of the Restoration Society). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lu Wenheng 陆文衡. Qiang’an suibi 蔷庵随笔 ((Leisurely jottings of the Vine Hut)). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowe, William T. 罗威廉. “WanQing diguo de ’shimin shehui’ wenti” 晚清帝国的“市民社会”问题 (The problem of the ‘civil society’ in the late Qing empire). Deng Zhenglai 邓正来, Yang Nianqun 杨念群 trans. In Alexander, Jeffrey C. ed. Guojia yu shimin shehui-yizhong shehui lilun de yanjiu lujing 国家与市民社会—一种社会理论的研究路径 (State and Civil Society: Social Theory and Methodology). Beijing: Zhongyang bianyi chubanshe, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mao Xianglin 毛祥麟. Moyu lu 墨余录 (Record of surplus ink). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mengjue daoren 梦觉道人, Xihu langzi 西湖浪子. Sanke pai’an jingqi 三刻拍案惊奇 (The three carvings), originally called Huanying 幻影 (Fantasy shadow). Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer-Fong, Tobie 梅尔清. “Yinshua de shijie: shuji, chuban wenhua he Zhonghua diguo wanqi de shehui” 印刷的世界: 书籍、 出版文化和中华帝国晚期的社会 (A world of print: book, printing culture and society in late imperial China). Liu Zongling 刘宗灵 trans. Shilin 史林 (Historical Review), 2008, (4).

  • Minchao Donghuan shishi 民抄董宦事实 (Common copies of the facts concerning Dong Huan). In Ming Wuzong waibian 明武宗外编 (Outer records of emperor Wuzong of the Ming). Taipei: Guangwen shuju, 1967.

  • Ming neige daku shiliao 明内阁大库史料 (Historical sources from the inner storehouses of the Ming). Taipei: Wenshizhe chubanshe, 1971.

  • Ping Buqing 平步青. Xiawai junxie 霞外攈屑 (Collecting fragments in the open air). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qian Daxin 钱大昕. Qianyantang wenji 潜研堂文集 (Collected writings of the Qianyan Hall). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qian Yong 钱泳. Lüyuan conghua 履园丛话 (Collection of chats whilst strolling in the garden). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Qiu Rongyu 邱荣裕. “Mingmo Fushe fabu ‘liudu fangluan gongjie’ shimo jiqi yingxiang” 明末复社发布«留都防乱公揭»始末及其影响 (Influences of the Late Ming Restoration Society’s publication of the “Announcement on the Prevention of Disorder in the Former Capital”). Guoli Taiwan shifan daxue lishi xuebao 国立台湾师范大学历史学报 (History Journal of National Taiwan Normal University), 1987, (15).

  • Quan Zuwang 全祖望. Jieqiting ji 鲒埼亭集 (Collections of the Pavilion by the Fresh Water Mussel Bank). Taipei: Huashi chubanshe, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robert E. Hegel. “Distinguishing Levels of Audiences for Ming-Ch’ing Vernacular Literature: A case Study.” In David Johnson, Andrew J. Nathan, and Evelyn S. Rawski ed. Popular Culture in Late Imperial China. Berkley: University of California Press, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruan Kuisheng 阮葵生. Chayu kehua 茶余客话 (Leisure chats with guests over tea). In Qingdai biji xiaoshuo daguan 清代笔记小说大观 (Overview of Qing era jottings and novels), Vol. 3. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shen Defu 沈德符. Wanli yehuo bian 万历野获编 (Edition of wild gatherings of the Wanli era). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sun Chengze 孙承泽. Tianfu guangji 天府广记 (Extensive records of Tianfu). Beijing: Beijing guji chubanshe, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang Bin 汤斌. Tangzi yishu 汤子遗书 (Fragments of the book of Tang Bin). Siku quanshu edition.

  • Tang Xianzu 汤显祖. Tang Xianzu ji 汤显祖集 (Collected writings of Tang Xianzu). Taipei: Hongshi chubanshe, 1975.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wakeman, Frederic E. 魏斐德. The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China (洪业—清朝开国史). Chen Suzhen 陈苏镇 et al. trans. Nanjing: Jiangsu renmin chubanshe, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wanli dichao 万历邸钞 (Copied version of Dibao in Emperor Wanli’s reign). Taipei: Guting shuwu, 1968.

  • Wang Hung-tai 王鸿泰. “Liudong yu hudong: You MingQing chengshi shenghuo de texing tance gongzhong changyu de kaizhan” 流动与互动—由明清城市生活的特性探测公众场域的开展 (Mobility and Interaction: The emerging public sphere in the urban life of late imperial China), Ph. D. dissertation. Institute of History, National Taiwan University, 1998.

  • Wangshi fuchou ji 王氏复仇记 (Records of the Wang’s revenge). In Shuoku 说库 (Storehouse of conversations), Vol. 6. Taipei: Xinxing shuju, n.d.

  • Wen Bing 文秉. Xianbo zhishi 先拨志始. In Lidai biji xiaoshuo jicheng 历代笔记小说集成 (Collection of historical plays and novels). Shijiazhuang: Hebei jiaoyu chubanshe, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu Renshu 巫仁恕. “Mingmo de xiju yu chengshi minbian” 明末的戏剧与城市民变 (Late Ming drama and urban change). Jiuzhou xuekan 九州学刊 (Jiuzhou Journal), 1994, 6: (3).

  • Wu Yingji 吴应箕. Loushantang ji 楼山堂集 (Collected writings of the hall of Mt. Lou). Siku quanshu edition.

  • Wu Yuancui 伍袁萃. Linju manlu 林居漫录 (Romantic records of the forest lodge). Siku quanshu cunmu congshu edition.

  • Xie Guozhen 谢国桢. “MingQing zhiji dangshe yundong kao” 明清之际党社运动考 (Study of factional activities in the Ming Qing transition period). Shanghai: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1934.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xingshi yinyuan 醒世姻缘 (A marriage match that shocked the world). Taipei: Lianjing chuban shiye gongsi, 1986.

  • Ye Sheng 叶盛. Shuidong riji 水东日记 (Records at the east of the water). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yin Yungong 尹韵公. Zhongguo Mingdai xinwen chuanbo shi 中国明代新闻传播史 (Media history of Ming China). Chongqing: Chongqing chubanshe, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu Jideng 余继登. Diangu jiwen 典故记闻 (Records of institutions and anecdotes). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu Yingshi 余英时. “Ming Qing xiaoshuo yu minjian wenhua-Hefeng tang xinwenji xu” 明清小说与民间文化—«和风堂新文集»序 (The preface to the New Writings of Hefeng Hall -The novel in popular culture in the Ming and Qing periods. Lianhe wenxue 联合文学 (United Literature), 1996, 12: (11).

  • Yu Yue 俞樾. Jiujiu xiaoxia lu 九九销夏录 (Record of escaping the mid-Summer heat). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yuan Hongdao 袁宏道. Yuan Hongdao ji jianjiao 袁宏道集笺校 (Annotated collected writings of Yuan Hongdao). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yuan, Tsing. “Urban Riots and Disturbances.” In Spence, Jonathan D. and Wills, John E. eds. From Ming to Ch’ing: Conquest, Religion and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao Yi 赵翼. Nianershi zhaji 廿二史札记 (Critical notes on the twenty two histories). Taipei: Wangji shufang, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Tingyu 张廷玉 et al. eds. Mingshi 明史 (The history of the Ming Dynasty), Vol. 257. Taipei: Dingwen shuju, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Youmo 张有谟. Jingchuanzhai zaji 景船斋杂记 (Miscellaneous jottings of the Scenic Boat Studio). Taipei: Dahua chubanshe, n.d.

  • Zhong Xing 钟惺. Yinxiu xuan ji 隐秀轩集 (Collected writings of the House of the Hermit Scholar). Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu Hong 袾宏. Zizhi lu 自知录 (Records of self knowing). Taipei: Xinwenfeng chubanshe, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hung-tai Wang.

Additional information

Translated by Luke Hambleton from Mingdai Yanjiu 明代研究 (Journal of Ming Studies), 2009, 12: 41–92

About this article

Cite this article

Wang, Ht. Information media, social imagination, and public society during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Front. Hist. China 5, 169–216 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11462-010-0008-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11462-010-0008-9

Keywords

  • Dibao
  • novels
  • drama
  • media
  • information media
  • public society