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On the Legal Status of Maritime Cultural Heritage and Its Management in the Russian Sectors of the Baltic Sea

Abstract

This study deals with the legal status of maritime cultural heritage (MCH) and maritime spatial planning (MSP) in Russia. One of the main problems is that, in Russia, the MCH, especially when non-archaeological objects of underwater cultural heritage (UCH), do not stand out at the legislative level. UCH is not mentioned in any legal act so far. Currently, several legislative initiatives proposed by the coastal constituent entities of the Baltic Sea are supported by the Marine Board and under consideration by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. It is expected that two proposed laws will be fully adopted by the end of 2020. MCH is not fully integrated into the pilot MSP in Russia. In the frame of the BalticRIM project, all existent MCH data in the Baltic Sea Region (Russian Sectors of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland) has been collected and compiled as a database. This database is the first step in integrating MCH into the MSP process; even the latter has no legal status. The Russian case could be an example of including the MCH into the MSP process from the very beginning to have the opportunity to provide key priority areas for MCH, as has been advised by MSP planners. The next step for the Russian case is to develop the new pilot MSP for the Russian Sectors of the Baltic Sea, considering the priority areas for MCH. The analysis of the MSP and MCH legislation in Russia allowed for the development of the proposals and further steps to develop mechanisms for the UCH management of both that which remains on the seabed and items subject to transfer/remove for subsequent storage onshore. These steps should be taken at the regional and national levels.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Vasilisa Lyagushova, the Museum of the World Ocean; Mariya Ivanova, the Vyborg Museum-Reserve; Konstantin Bogdanov, Search Expedition "Bowing to the ships of the Great Victory"; The Russian Geographical Society (Underwater Research Center); and to a diver Vadim Malysh for the cooperation and for providing the some MCH data.

Funding

The study was financially supported by the BalticRIM project.

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Conceptualization: L.D.B., M.O.U.; Methodology: A.A.K., L.V.D.; Formal analysis and investigation: A.A.K.; Writing—original draft preparation: L.D.B., M.O.U., M.V.K.; Writing—review and editing: A.A.K., A.D.L., L.V.D.; Supervision: L.D.B.

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Correspondence to Leyla D. Bashirova.

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Bashirova, L.D., Ulyanova, M.O., Kovalev, A.A. et al. On the Legal Status of Maritime Cultural Heritage and Its Management in the Russian Sectors of the Baltic Sea. J Mari Arch 16, 111–132 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11457-020-09288-4

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Keywords

  • Legislation
  • Underwater cultural heritage
  • Maritime spatial planning
  • South-Eastern Baltic Sea
  • The Gulf of Finland