Advertisement

Journal of Maritime Archaeology

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 153–178 | Cite as

Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

  • Bill JefferyEmail author
  • Robert Parthesius
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

Keywords

Maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) programme Swahili Kilwa Kisiwani Ilha de Moçambique Mafia Island 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A number of people and organisations need to be acknowledged and thanked for their assistance in this work. In Tanzania, the people of Kilwa Kisiwani, Kilwa Masoko, Songo Mnara; the people of the islands of Chole and Juani, and the Mlongo villagers in Mafia; the staff of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Department of Antiquities in Dar es Salaam and Kilwa Kisiwani; the staff of the Mafia Island Marine Park, and the Kilwa Kisiwani and Mafia Island District Administrators. Monique Korzelius from the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Dar es Salaam, and Adele Nibona, Vibeke Jensen and Nicole Bolomey from the UNESCO Dar es Salaam office need to be especially acknowledged for their support and funding of the Kilwa Kisiwani project and the initial training in Tanzania, and Jesper Buursink (CIE) was a also great help in those initial days. The government agencies on Zanzibar and on the mainland have supported their staff in forming the MUCH team and they financially supported their staff to join the Kilwa Kisiwani and Mafia projects. We would also like to thank the South African Heritage Resources Agency and the Namibian National Museum for supporting their staff to join the Kilwa project. Thanks also to Jon Sharman, Emma Imalwa and Sophie Winton for their help during the Kilwa project. In Mozambique, Hafiz Juma has been a consistent strength in the Ilha de Moçambique community and he initiated the need for the seminar on Ilha de Moçambique, in addition to years of lobbying the government authorities about the need for better management of the island’s heritage. We would also like to thank the staff of UNESCO in Maputo (particularly Mieke Oldenburg) and on Ilha de Moçambique for their support in the project (in addition to the work leading up to the project), and the people of Ilha de Moçambique who attended the seminar and have continued to voice their concerns, as well as support the community work that was initiated. We would also like to acknowledge the support of the CIE Leiden staff (particularly Anouk Fieneig and Arnout van Rhijin), who supported this work through many days of effective and efficient administration and literature research. Finally, we would like to thank Graeme Henderson and Stuart Heaver for reading and commenting on this paper.

References

  1. Allen RB (2008) The constant demand of the French: the Mascarene slave trade and the worlds of the Indian Ocean and Atlantic during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. J Afr Hist 49(1):43–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ArchNet (2012), Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Kilwa. http://archnet.org/library/dictionary/entry.jsp?entry_id=DIA0420&mode=full (Accessed 16 October 2012)
  3. Arqueonautas (n.d.) Excavated wrecks in Mozambique (http://www.arq-publications.com/downloads/moz_wrecks_excavated.pdf; Accessed 21 April 2013)
  4. Bacuez P (2009) Intangible heritage, tourism and raising awareness on Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara. UNESCO, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  5. Blake J (2002) Developing a New Standard-setting Instrument for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage: Elements for consideration. UNESCO, Paris. Available online http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001237/123744e.pdf Accessed 16 October 2012
  6. Blake J (2009) UNESCO’s 2003 Convention on intangible cultural heritage: the implications of community involvement in ‘safeguarding’. In: Smith L, Akagawa N (eds) Intangible heritage. Routledge, London, pp 45–106Google Scholar
  7. Breen CP, Lane PJ (2003) Archaeological approaches to East Africa’s changing seascape. World Archaeol 35:469–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breen CP, Forsythe W, Lane P, McErlean T, McConkey R, Omar AL, Quinn R, Williams B (2001) Ulster and the Indian Ocean? Recent maritime archaeological research on the East African coast. Antiquity 75:797–798Google Scholar
  9. Chami FA (1999) Roman Beads from the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania: first Incontrovertible Archaeological link with the Periplus. Curr Anthropol 40(2):237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chami FA (2002) People and contacts in the ancient Western Indian Ocean Seabord or Azania. Man and Environment. (Special Theme on the Indian Ocean in Antiquity) 27(1):33–44Google Scholar
  11. Chirikure S, Sinamai A, Goagoses E, Mubusisi M, Ndoro W (2010) Maritime archaeology and trans-oceanic trade: a case study of the Oranjemund shipwreck cargo, Namibia. J Mar Arch 5:37–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chittick N (1961) Kisimani Mafia: Excavations at an Islamic settlement on the East African Coast Occasional paper no. 12. Ministry of Education, Antiquities Division. TanganyikaGoogle Scholar
  13. Chittick N (1963) Kilwa and the Arab Settlement of the East African Coast. J Afr Hist 4(2):179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chittick HN (1974) Kilwa, an Islamic trading city on the east African coast, 2 vols. British Institute in Eastern Africa, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  15. Chittick HN (1980) Stone anchor shanks in the western Indian Ocean. Int J Naut Arch 9:3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christie AC (2011) Exploring the social context of maritime exploitation in the Mafia Archipelago, Tanzania: an archaeological perspective. PhD dissertation, University of York, Department of ArchaeologyGoogle Scholar
  17. CIE (2011) Ilha d Mozambique word heritage site, maritime and underwater cultural heritage, Report on Sensibilization Seminar 24–28 January 2011. Centre for International Heritage Activities. Unpublished report, UNESCO MaputoGoogle Scholar
  18. Curryer BN (1999) Anchors: an illustrated history. Chatham Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Deacon H, Dondolo L, Mrubata M, Prosalendis S (2004) The subtle power of intangible heritage. HSRC Publishers, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  20. Duarte RMT (1993) Northern Mozambique in the Swahili World—an archaeological approach, Studies in African Archaeology 4. Central Board of National Antiquities and Uppsala University/Eduardo Mondlane University, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  21. Duarte RMT (2010) Arqueonautas’ intervention in Mozambique Island. Unpublished ICUCH report, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  22. Duarte RMT (2012) Maritime history in Mozambique and East Africa: the urgent need for the proper study and preservation of endangered underwater cultural heritage. J Mar Arch 7(1):63–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunn RE (1986) The adventures of Ibn Battuta, A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  24. Fleisher J (2004) Behind the Sultan of Kilwa’s “Rebellious Conduct”: local perspectives on an International East African Town. In Reid A and Lane P (eds) African Historical Archaeologies pp 91–123Google Scholar
  25. Fleisher J, Wynne-Jones S (2010) Kilwa-type coins from Songo Mnara, Tanzania: new finds and chronological implications. Numismatic Chronicle 170:494–506Google Scholar
  26. Fleisher J, Wynne-Jones S (2012) Finding meaning in ancient Swahili spatial practices. Afr Archaeol Rev 29(2/3):171–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fleisher J, Wynne-Jones S, Steele C, Welham K (2012) Geophysical Survey at Kilwa Kisiwani, Tanzania. J Afr Archaeol 10(2):207–220Google Scholar
  28. Freeman-Grenville GSP (1960) East African coin finds and their historical significance. J Afr Hist 1(1):31–43Google Scholar
  29. Glathe H (1939) The origin and development of Chinese Money. Chin J Publ, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson G (1986) Maritime archaeology in Australia. University of Western Australia Press, NedlandsGoogle Scholar
  31. Henderson G (ed) (1994) Guidelines for the management of Australia’s Shipwrecks. Australian Cultural Development Office, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  32. Heng DTS (2006) Export commodity and regional currency: the role of Chinese copper coins in the Melaka straits, tenth to fourteenth centuries. J Southeast Asian Stud 37:179–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Horlings R (2012) Maritime cultural resource investigation, management, and mitigation in coastal Ghana. J Mar Arch 7:141–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ichumbaki EB (2011) Tanzania’s maritime and underwater cultural heritage: strategies towards sustainable conservation and management. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage. Asian Academy for Heritage Management. Manila, Philippines. Available online http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1239 Accessed 16 October 2012
  35. Jeffery B (2011) Rocks wrecks and relevance: values and benefits in maritime and underwater cultural heritage. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage. Asian Academy for Heritage Management. Manila, Philippines. pp 527–539. Available online http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1251 Accessed 16 October 2012
  36. Jeffery B (2013) Reviving community spirit: furthering the sustainable, historical and economic role of fish weirs and traps. J Mar Arch Published online 17 January 2013Google Scholar
  37. Jeffery B, Parthesius R (2012) Planning for the future: benefits in building local and regional capacities in implementing maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) programmes. In: Tan H (ed) Maritime archaeology in Southeast Asia, innovation and adaptation. Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, pp 164–182Google Scholar
  38. Krahl R, Guy J, Wilson K, Raby J (2010) Shipwrecked. Tang treasures and monsoon winds. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. Smithsonian Institution, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. Lane PJ (2005) Maritime archaeology: a prospective research avenue in Tanzania. In: Mapunda BBB, Msemwa P (eds) Salvaging Tanzania’s cultural heritage. Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam, pp 96–132Google Scholar
  40. Lane PJ (2007) New international frameworks for the protection of underwater cultural heritage in the western Indian Ocean. Azania 41:115–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lane PJ (2012) Maritime and shipwreck archaeology in the Western Indian Ocean and Southern Red Sea: an overview of past and current research. J Mar Arch 7:9–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mahudi H (2011) Establishing a Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Unit in Tanzania. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage. Asian Academy for Heritage Management. Manila, Philippines. Available online http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1252 Accessed 16 October 2012
  43. Middleton J (2004) African Merchants of the Indian Ocean: Swahili of the East African Coast. Waveland Press, Long GroveGoogle Scholar
  44. Nutley D (2007) Tanzania: introduction to underwater cultural heritage training program. Unpublished report. UNESCO Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  45. Parthesius R (2011) Shared Heritage? Shared Responsibility: reflections on the role of ‘shared’ colonial heritage within capacity building programmes in the post-colonial world. In: Proceedings of the Inaugural Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage. Asian Academy for Heritage Management. Manila, Philippines. pp 641–651. Available online http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1229 Accessed 16 October 2012
  46. Parthesius R, Jeffery B (2013) Building country-relevant programmes to support the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on the protection of underwater cultural heritage 2001. In: European Archaeology Abroad. Global Settings, Comparative Perspectives. Sidestone Press, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  47. Piercy R (1977) Mombasa wreck excavation, Preliminary report. Int J Naut Archaeol 6(4):331–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Piercy R (1978) Mombasa wreck excavation, Second preliminary report. Int J Naut Archaeol 7(4):301–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Piercy R (1980) Mombasa wreck excavation, Third preliminary report. Int J Naut Archaeol 8(4):303–309Google Scholar
  50. Piercy R (1981) Mombasa wreck excavation, Fourth preliminary report. Int J Naut Archaeol 10(2):109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pollard EJD (2007) An archaeology of Tanzanian coastal landscapes in the Middle Iron Age (6th to 15th centuries AD). Ph.D. dissertation, University of UlsterGoogle Scholar
  52. Pollard EJD (2008a) The maritime landscape of Kilwa Kisiwani and its region, Tanzania 11th to 15th century AD. J Anthropol Archaeol 27:265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pollard E (2008b) Inter-tidal causeways and platforms of the 13th to 16th century city state of Kilwa Kisiwani, Tanzania. Int J Naut Archaeol 37(1):98–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pollard EJD (2009) Settlement adaptation to a changing coastline: archaeological evidence from Tanzania, during the First and Second Millennia AD. J Island Coastal Archaeol 4(1):82–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pollard E, Fleisher J, Wynne-Jones S (2012) Beyond the stone town: Maritime Architecture at fourteenth–fifteenth century Songo Mnara, Tanzania. J Mar Arch 7(1):43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pradines S (2009) L’île de Sanjé ya Kati (Kilwa, Tanzanie): un mythe Shirâzi bien réelAzania. Archaeol Res Afr 44(1):49–73Google Scholar
  57. Quatorze M and da Graça M (2004) Sunken treasure brings a tidal wave of trouble. ioL news, June 13 2004 (http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/sunken-treasure-brings-tidal-wave-of-trouble-1.214643; Accessed 16 October 2012)
  58. Regional Group (2011) Regional Group on Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage (MUCH) Collaboration Statement, Dar es Salaam 2011 (http://www.heritage-activities.nl/drupal/sites/default/files/content/images/MUCH/Regional%20Group%20on%20MUCH%20Collaboration%20Statement%20-%20Eng.pdf) (Accessed May 2013)
  59. Rhodes D (2010) Historical archaeologies of nineteenth-century colonial Tanzania: a comparative study. British Archaeological Reports S2075—Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 79, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Ross R, Holtzappel FG (1986) The Dutch on the Swahili Coast, 1776–1778: two slaving journals, Part I. Int J Afr Hist Stud 19(2):305–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith L (2004) Archaeological theory and the politics of cultural heritage. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith L (2006) Uses of heritage. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Sutton JEG (1998) Archaeological sites of East Africa. Azania. Special Volume 33. The British Institute in Eastern Africa. NairobiGoogle Scholar
  64. Tanzanian Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage (MUCH) team (2012) Mafia Island Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Survey, March 2012. Unpublished Report. TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  65. Theal GM (1898) Records of South-Eastern Africa collected in various libraries and archive departments in Europe, Volume II. Government of the Cape Colony, 1898–1903Google Scholar
  66. Theal GM (1901) Records of South-Eastern Africa Collected in various Libraries and Archive Departments in Europe, Volume V. Government of the Cape Colony, 1898–1903Google Scholar
  67. UNESCO (2001) 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwater-cultural-heritage/; Accessed 16 October 2012)
  68. UNESCO (2004) Integrated approach to the protection and safeguarding of cultural heritage of the ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara, endangered world heritage sites. Internal document. UNESCO, Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  69. UNESCO (2011) Project Design. In: Guérin U, Egger B and Maarleveld T (eds.), UNESCO Manual for Activities Directed at Underwater Cultural Heritage. Annex to the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwater-cultural-heritage/unesco-manual-for-activities-directed-at-underwater-cultural-heritage/unesco-manual/project-design/; accessed May 2013)
  70. UNESCO (n.d.) The island of Mozambique (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/599; Accessed 21 April 2013)
  71. Wynne-Jones S, Fleisher J (2010) Archaeological investigations at Songo Mnara, Tanzania, 2009. Nyame Akuma 73:2–8Google Scholar
  72. Wynne-Jones S, Fleisher J (2011) Archaeological investigations at Songo Mnara, Tanzania, 2011. Nyame Akuma 76:3–8Google Scholar
  73. Wynne-Jones S, Fleisher J (2012) Coins in context: local economy, value and practice on the East African Swahili Coast. Cambridge Archaeol J 22:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yu L, Yu H (2004) Chinese coins: money in history and society. Long River Press, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage ProgrammeLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.University of GuamMangilaoUSA
  3. 3.Hong Kong Maritime MuseumCentralHong Kong
  4. 4.CIE-Centre for International Heritage ActivitiesLeidenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Faculty of ArchaeologyLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations