An international consensus is emerging around the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) proposed by the Chinese government, with a growing number of countries seeing it as a way of jointly exploring new international economic governance mechanisms. Meanwhile, with the crisis of neo-liberalism, economic globalization has arrived at a crossroad. In particular, incessant voices speak out against globalization, making the quest for a new way of promoting global development a major challenge. In this context, more and more political elites and scholars consider that the BRI opens up a possible new globalization path, amongst which inclusive globalization warrants exploration. On the basis of a brief analysis of the course and mechanism of global economic expansion and the limitations of neo-liberal globalization, along with the putting into practice of the BRI, this paper outlines some of the core features of inclusive globalization, i.e., inclusive growth with effective and efficient government regulation; inclusive infrastructure development; inclusive development paths chosen nationally that suit national conditions; inclusive participation; and cultural inclusiveness. Although these features are not sufficient to characterize fully inclusive globalization, they do identify some directions for future research, and provide elements of a discursive construction of the BRI.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Asian Development Bank, 2008. Strategy 2020: The Long-Term Strategic Framework of the Asian Development Bank 2008–2020 is the paramount ADB-wide strategic framework to guide all its operations to 2020. https://www.adb.org/about/policies-and-strategies
Bao Qun, 2017. Is globalization reversible? In: Tong Jiadong, Xie Danyang, Bao Qun et al. Notes on deglobalization and transformation and upgrading of the real economy. China Industrial Economics, ((6): 19–26. (in Chinese)
Braun B, Liu W D, Roberts S M et al., 2017. Book review forum on limits to globalization: Disruptive geographies of Capitalist development. Economic Geography. doi: 10.1080/00130095.2017.1380936
Brenner N, Peck J, Theodore N, 2010. Variegated neoliberalization: Geographies, modalities, pathways. Global Networks, 10(2): 182–222.
Chetty R, Grusky D, Hell M et al., 2017. The fading American dream: Trends in absolute income mobility since 1940. Science, 356(6336): 398–406.
Clark G L, 2017. Financial intermediation, infrastructure investment and regional growth. Area Development and Policy, 2(3): 217–236.
Dicken P, 2010. Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy. 6th ed. New York: Guildford Press.
Dunford M, Liu W D, 2017. A century of uneven and combined development: The erosion of United States hegemony and the rise of China. MIGMO Review of International Relations, 5(56): 7–32. doi: 10.24833/2071-8160-2017-5-56-7-32.
Ferenczi I, Willcox W F, 1929. International Migrations, Volume I, Statistics. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Gao Debu, Wang Jue, 2001. An Economic History of the World. Beijing: China Renmin University Press. (in Chinese)
Harold J, 2001. The End of Globalization: Lessons from the Great Depression. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Harvey D, 1975. The geography of capitalist accumulation: A reconstruction of the Marxian theory. Antipode, 2(S): 9–12.
Harvey D, 1981. The spatial fix: Hegel, Von Thünen and Marx. Antipode, ((13): 1–12.
Harvey D, 2007. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Henderson J, Jepson N, 2017. Critical transformations and global development: Materials for a new analytical framework. Area Development and Policy. doi: 10.1080/23792949.2017.1369856.
Hudson R, 2016. Rising powers and the drivers of uneven global development. Area Development and Policy, 1(3): 279–294.
Issawi C, 1982. An Economic History of the Middle East and North Africa. Columbia University Press, 464–465.
Korten D C, 1995. When Corporations Rule the World. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Kuczynski J, 1955. Capitalist World Economic History Research. Translated by Chen Dongxu. Shanghai: Joint Publishing.
Li Shengping, 2012. Inclusive development: The inevitable choice of the development of globalization. Productivity Research, ((2): 6–9. (in Chinese)
Lin Yifu, Wang Yan, 2017. The new structural economics: Patient capital as a comparative advantage. Development Bank Finance Research, ((1): 3–13. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, 2015. Scientific understanding of the Belt and Road Initiative of China and related research themes. Progress in Geography, 35(5): 538–544. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, 2016. Some Misunderstandings of the “Belt and Road Initiative”. Journal of Chinese Academy of Governance, ((1): 30–34. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, 2017a. Inclusive globalization: New philosophy of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32(4): 331–339. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, 2017b. Inclusive Globalization: New Philosophy of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Beijing: The Commercial Press. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, Dicken P, 2006. Transnational corporations and ‘obligated embeddedness’: Foreign direct investment in China’s automobile industry. Environment and Planning A, 38(7): 1229–1247.
Liu Weidong, Dunford M, 2016. Inclusive globalization: Unpacking China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Area Development and Policy, 1(1): 323–340.
Liu Weidong, Liu Zhigao, 2016. Research on the Construction of on “Belt and Road Initiative”. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
Liu Weidong, Tian Jinchen, Ou Xiaoli et al., 2017. Research on “Belt and Road Initiative”. Beijing: The Commercial Press. (in Chinese)
National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Commerce, 2015. Vision and Actions on Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
O’Rourke K, Williamson J, 2001. Globalization and history: The evolution of a nineteenth-century Atlantic economy. Journal of American History, 61(1): 256–259.
Oxfam, 2015. Global Wealth Gap Report. http://finance.chinanews.com/cj/2015/01-27/7009775.shtml. (in Chinese)
Piketty T, 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rostow W W, 1978. The World Economy: History & Prospect. London: The Macmillan Press.
Sheppard E, 2016. Limits to Globalization: Disruptive Geographies of Capitalist Development. UK: Oxford University Press.
Stiglitz J E, 2015. A Nobel Laureate explains how Trump could nuke the economy. Vanity Fair, December 27, 2016.
Streeck W, 2014. Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism. London: Verso.
Taylor J G W, 2005. Globalization in Historical Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Tong Jiadong, Liu Cheng, 2017. The origins and direction of deglobalisation: A comparative historical perspective. In: Tong Jiadong, Xie Danyang, Bao Qun et al. The talks on paper of the deglobalization and transformation and upgrading of real economy. China Industrial Economics, ((6): 5–13. (in Chinese)
Wang Yi, 2012. Inclusive development: A proposal for our time in a context of globalization. Forum of World Economy & Politics, ((4): 60–69. (in Chinese)
Wang Yiwei, 2017a. Will “the Belt and Road Initiative” lead to “globalization with Chinese style”? Journal of Xinjiang Normal University (Edition of Philosophy and Social Sciences), 38(5): 7–13. (in Chinese)
Wang Yiwei, 2017b. “One Belt and One Road” 2.0: Ushering in a new globalization. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32(4): 387–394. (in Chinese)
Wei Weiqiang, 2006. Who won the Hayek-Keynes battle? Comments on the rise and fall of neoliberalism and their implications for the Chinese economy. Theoretical Observation, 42(6): 20–22. (in Chinese)
Xie Danyang, Cheng Kun, 2017. An analysis of inclusive globalization. In: Tong Jiadong, Xie Danyang, Bao Qun et al. (eds.) The talks on paper of the deglobalization and transformation and upgrading of real economy. China Industrial Economics, ((6): 13–19. (in Chinese)
Yang Chunxue, Xie Zhigang, 2009. The global financial crisis and Keynesian economics. Economic Research Journal, ((11): 22–30. (in Chinese)
Zhao Baige, 2017. Belt and Road Initiative leading a new type of globalization. People’s Daily, 2017-05-09(05). (in Chinese)
Foundation: National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41530751; National Social Science Foundation of China, No.17VDL008; The Project of Bureau of International Cooperation of the CAS, No.131A11KYSB20170014
About this article
Cite this article
Liu, W., Dunford, M. & Gao, B. A discursive construction of the Belt and Road Initiative: From neo-liberal to inclusive globalization. J. Geogr. Sci. 28, 1199–1214 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-018-1520-y