Progress and prospect of research on forest landscape model

Abstract

The Forest Landscape Model (FLM) is an efficiency tool of quantified expression of forest ecosystem’s structure and function. This paper, on the basis of identifying FLM, according to the stage of development, summarizes the development characteristics of the model, which includes the theoretical foundation of mathematical model, FLM of stand-scale, primary development of spatial landscape model, rapid development of ecosystem process model as the priority, and developing period of structure and process driven by multi-factor. According to the characteristics of different FLMs, this paper classifies the existing FLM in terms of mechanism, property and application, and elaborates the identifications, advantages and disadvantages of different types of models. It summarizes and evaluates the main application fields of existing models from two aspects which are the changes of spatial pattern and ecological process. Eventually, this paper presents FLM’s challenges and directions of development in the future, including: (1) more prominent service on the practical strategy of forest management’s objectives; (2) construction of multi-modules and multi-plugin to satisfy landscape research demand in various conditions; (3) adoption of high resolution’s spatial-temporal data; (4) structural construction of multi-version module; (5) improving the spatial suitability of model application.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aber J D, Federer C A, 1992. A generalized, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Oecologia, 92(4): 463–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andrews P L, 1986. BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN subsystem, part 1. Ogden, UT, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Andrews P L, Chase C H, 1989. BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN subsystem, part 2. Ogden, UT, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baker W L, 1989. A review of models of landscape change, Landscape Ecology, 2(2): 111–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baker W L, 1992. The landscape ecology of large disturbances in the design and management of nature reserves. Landscape Ecology, 7(3): 181–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Baskent E Z, 1997. Assessment of structural dynamic in forest landscape management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(10): 1675–1684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Botkin D B, Bartley H A, Wallis J R, 1972. Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth. Journal of Ecology, 60(3): 849–872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Browder J A, Bartley H A, Davis K S, 1985. A probabilistic model of the relationship between marshland-water interface and marsh disintegration. Ecological Modelling, 29(1): 245–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bugmann H K M, 1996. A simplified forest model to study species composition along climate gradients. Ecology, 77(7): 2055–2074.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cary G J, Keane R E, Gardner R H et al., 2006. Comparison of the sensitivity of landscape-fire-succession models to variation in terrain, fuel pattern, climate and weather. Landscape Ecology, 21(1): 121–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chen R, Twilley R R, 1998. A gap dynamic model of mangrove forest development along gradients of soil salinity and nutrient resources. Journal of Ecology, 86(1): 37–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Collins L, 1975. An Introduction to Markov Chain Analysis. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography. Norwich: Geo Abstracts, Univ. of East Anglia.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Collins L, Drewett R, Ferguson R, 1974. Markov models in geography. The Statistician, 23: 179–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Feller W, 1968. An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Foley J A, Prentice I C, Ramankutty N et al., 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10(4): 603–628.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Franklin J F, Forman R T T, 1987. Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: Ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecology, 1(1): 5–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Fu B J, Chen L D, Ma K M et al., 2011. The Principle and Application of Landscape Ecology. 2nd ed. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gardner R H, 1987. Assessing regional impacts of growth declines using a forest succession model. Journal of Environmental Management, 24: 83–93.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gardner R H, Romme W H, Turner, M G, 1999. Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscapes: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 163–185.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Gustafson E J, Shvidenko A Z, Scheller R M, 2011. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41(7): 1405–1421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gustafson E J, Shvidenko A Z, Sturtevant B R et al., 2010. Predicting global change effects on forest biomass and composition in south-central Siberia. Ecological Applications, 20(3): 700–715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Gustafson E J, Zollner P A, Sturtevant B R et al., 2004. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA. Landscape Ecology, 19(3): 327–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hall G M J, Hollinger D Y, 2000. Simulating New Zealand forest dynamics with a generalized temperate forest gap model. Ecological Applications, 10(1): 115–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hardy C C, Schmidt K M, Menakis J P et al., 2001. Spatial data for national fire planning and fuel management. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 10(4): 353–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hargrove W W, Gardner R H, Turner M G et al., 2000. Simulating fire patterns in heterogeneous landscapes. Ecological Modelling, 135(2): 243–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. He H S, 2008. Forest landscape models: definitions, characterization, and classification. Forest Ecology and Management, 254(3): 484–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. He H S, Hao Z, Larsen D R et al., 2002. A simulation study of landscape scale forest succession in northeastern China. Ecological Modelling, 156(2): 153–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. He H S, Hao Z, Mladenoff D J et al., 2005. Simulating forest ecosystem response to climate warming incorporating spatial effects in north-eastern China. Journal of Biogeography, 32(12): 2043–2056.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. He H S, Yang J, Shifley S R et al., 2011. Challenges of forest landscape modeling: Simulating large landscapes and validating results. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4): 400–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Henderson W, Wilkins C W, 1975. The interaction of bushfires and vegetation. Search, 6(4): 130–133.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Horn H S, Shugart H H, Urban D L, 1989. Simulators as models of forest dynamics. In: Perspectives in Ecological Theory. New Jersey: Princeton University Press: 256–267.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Keane R E, Cary G J, Davies I D et al., 2004. A classification of landscape fire succession models: Spatial simulations of fire and vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 179(1): 3–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Keane R E, Cary G J, Parsons R, 2003. Using simulation to map fire regimes: An evaluation of approaches, strategies, and limitations. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 12(4): 309–322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Keane R E, Morgan P, Running S W, 1996. Fire-BGC: A mechanistic ecological process model for simulating fire succession on coniferous forest landscapes of the northern Rocky Mountains. Ogden, Utah: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Lafon C W, 2004. Ice-storm disturbance and long-term forest dynamics in the Adirondack Mountains. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15(2): 267–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Li C, 2000. Reconstruction of natural fire regimes through ecological modelling. Ecological Modelling, 134(2): 129–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Li C, 2002. Estimation of fire frequency and fire cycle: A computational perspective. Ecological Modelling, 154(1): 103–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lischke H, Zimmermann N E, Bolliger J et al., 2006. TreeMig: A forest-landscape model for simulating spatio-temporal patterns from stand to landscape scale. Ecological Modelling, 199(4): 409–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Liu J, Ashton P S, 1998. FORMOSAIC: An individual-based spatially explicit model for simulating forest dynamics in landscape mosaics. Ecological Modelling, 106(2): 177–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. McKendrick A G, 1925. Applications of mathematics to medical problems. Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, 44: 98–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Mladenoff D J, 2004. LANDIS and forest landscape models. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 7–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Mladenoff D L, Baker W L, 1999. Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Application. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Mladenoff D J, Host G E, Boeder J et al., 1993. LANDIS: A model of forest landscape succession and management at multiple scales. Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Proceedings of the Annual US Landscape Ecology Symposium, 77.

  44. Mladenoff D J, Host G E, Boeder J et al., 1996. LANDIS: A spatial model of forest landscape disturbance, succession, and management. Second International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling. Santa Barbara, California: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, 175–179.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Nonaka E, Spies T A, 2005. Historical range of variability in landscape structure: A simulation study in Oregon, USA. Ecological Applications, 15(5): 1727–1746.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Oster G, Takahashi Y, 1974. Models for age-specific interactions in a periodic environment. Ecological Monographs, 44: 483–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Pacala S W, Canham C D, Saponara J et al., 1996. Forest models defined by field measurements: Estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66(1): 1–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Pacala S W, Hurtt G C, 1993. Terrestrial vegetation and climate change: Integrating models and experiments. Sunderland MA: Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, 57–74.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Pan Y, McGuire A D, Melillo, J M et al., 2002. A biogeochemistry-based dynamic vegetation model and its application along a moisture gradient in the continental United States. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(3): 369–382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Pennanen J, Greene D F, Fortin M J et al., 2004. Spatially explicit simulation of long-term boreal forest landscape dynamics: incorporating quantitative stand attributes. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 195–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Perry G L W, Enright N J, 2006. Spatial modelling of vegetation change in dynamic landscapes, a review of methods and applications. Progress in Physical Geography, 30(1): 47–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Perry G L W, Millington J D A, 2008. Spatial modelling of succession-disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems: Concepts and examples. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9(3): 190–210.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Pickles A, 1980. Models of movement: A review of alternative methods. Environment and Planning A, 12(12): 1383–1404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Rastetter E B, Ryan M G, Shaver G R et al., 1991. A general biogeochemical model describing the responses of the C and N cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to changes in CO2, climate, and N deposition. Tree Physiology, 9(1/2): 101–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Ratz A, 1995. Long-term spatial patterns created by fire: A model oriented towards Boreal Forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 5(1): 25–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Running S W, Gower S T, 1991. FOREST-BGC, a general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. II: Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets. Tree Physiology, 9(1/2): 147–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Rykiel Jr E J, 1996. Testing ecological models: The meaning of validation. Ecological Modelling, 90(3): 229–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Scheller R M, Domingo J B, Sturtevant B R et al., 2007. Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution. Ecological Modelling, 201(3): 409–419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Scheller R M, Mladenoff D J, 2007. An ecological classification of forest landscape simulation models: Tools and strategies for understanding broad-scale forested ecosystems. Landscape Ecology, 22(4): 491–505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Schumacher S, Reineking B, Sibold J et al., 2006. Modeling the impact of climate and vegetation on fire regimes in mountain landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 21(4): 539–554.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Seidl R, Rammer W, Scheller R M et al., 2012. An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 231: 87–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Sessions J, Johnson K N, Franklin J F et al., 1999. Achieving sustainable forest structures on fire-prone land-scapes while pursuing multiple goals. In: Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscapes Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 210–255.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Shao G F, Zhao S D, Shugart H H, 1995. Forest Dynamics Modeling. Beijing: Chinese Forestry Press. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  64. Shugart H H, 1984. A Theory of Forest Dynamics: The Ecological Implications of Forest Succession Models. New York: Springer-Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Shugart H H, Noble I R, 1981. A computer model of succession and fire response of the high-altitude Eucalyptus forest of the Brindabella Range, Australian Capital Territory. Australian Journal of Ecology, 6(2): 149–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Shugart H H, West D C, 1977. Development of an Appalachian deciduous forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the chestnut blight. Journal of Environmental Management, 5: 161–179.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Sinko J W, Streifer W, 1967. A new model for age-size structure of a population. Ecology, 48: 910–918.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Sinko J W, Streifer W, 1969. Applying models incorporating age-size structure to Daphnia. Ecology, 50: 608–615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Sklar F H, Costanza R, Day Jr J W, 1985. Dynamic spatial simulation modeling of coastal wetland habitat succession. Ecological Modelling, 29(1): 261–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Streifer W, 1974. Realistic models in population ecology. Advances in Ecological Research, 8: 199–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Swanson M E, 2009. Modeling the effects of alternative management strategies on forest carbon in the Nothofagus forests of Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(8): 1740–1750.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Syphard A D, Franklin J, 2004. Spatial aggregation effects on the simulation of landscape pattern and ecological processes in southern California plant communities. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 21–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Thompson J R, Foster D R, Scheller R M et al., 2011. The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA. Ecological Applications, 21(7): 2425–2444.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Thompson J R, Johnson K N, Lennette M et al., 2006. Historical disturbance regimes as a reference for forest policy in a multiowner province: A simulation experiment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36(2): 401–417.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Turner M G, 1988. A spatial simulation model of land use changes in a piedmont county in Georgia. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 27(1): 39–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Urban D L, Acevedo M F, Garman S L, 1999. Scaling fine-scale processes to large-scale patterns using models derived from models: Meta-models. In: Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 70–98.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Van Hulst R, 1979. On the dynamics of vegetation: Markov chains as models of succession. Vegetatio, 40(1): 3–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. von Foerster H, 1959. Some Remarks on Changing Populations. New York: The Kinetics of Cellular Proliferation. 382–407.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Wilkie D S, Finn J T, 1988. A spatial model of land use and forest regeneration in the Ituri forest of northeastern Zaire. Ecological Modelling, 41(3): 307–323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Wilkins C W, 1977. A stochastic analysis of the effect of fire on remote vegetation. South Australia: PhD Diss., Univ. of Adelaide.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Wimberly M C, 2002. Spatial simulation of historical landscape patterns in coastal forests of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(8): 1316–1328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Wolfram S, 1984. Cellular automata as models of complexity. Nature, 311: 419–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Xi W M, Coulson R N, Birt A G et al., 2009. Review of forest landscape models: Types, methods, development and applications. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(1): 69–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Yan X D, Zhao S D, Yu Z L, 2000. Modeling growth and succession of northeastern China forests and its applications in global change studies. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24(1): 1–8. (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  85. Yang J, He H S, Shifley S R et al., 2007. Spatial pattern of modern period human-caused fire occurrence in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. Forest Science, 53(1): 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Erfu Dai.

Additional information

Foundation: The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2015CB452702; No.2012CB416906; National Key Technology R&D Program, No.2013BAC03B04; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371196

Author: Dai Erfu (1972–), PhD and Professor, specialized in comprehensive study of physical geography, climate change and regional response, simulation of LUCC.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dai, E., Wu, Z., Wang, X. et al. Progress and prospect of research on forest landscape model. J. Geogr. Sci. 25, 113–128 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-015-1157-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Forest Landscape Model (FLM)
  • development stage
  • model classification
  • model application
  • model development