The Forest Landscape Model (FLM) is an efficiency tool of quantified expression of forest ecosystem’s structure and function. This paper, on the basis of identifying FLM, according to the stage of development, summarizes the development characteristics of the model, which includes the theoretical foundation of mathematical model, FLM of stand-scale, primary development of spatial landscape model, rapid development of ecosystem process model as the priority, and developing period of structure and process driven by multi-factor. According to the characteristics of different FLMs, this paper classifies the existing FLM in terms of mechanism, property and application, and elaborates the identifications, advantages and disadvantages of different types of models. It summarizes and evaluates the main application fields of existing models from two aspects which are the changes of spatial pattern and ecological process. Eventually, this paper presents FLM’s challenges and directions of development in the future, including: (1) more prominent service on the practical strategy of forest management’s objectives; (2) construction of multi-modules and multi-plugin to satisfy landscape research demand in various conditions; (3) adoption of high resolution’s spatial-temporal data; (4) structural construction of multi-version module; (5) improving the spatial suitability of model application.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aber J D, Federer C A, 1992. A generalized, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Oecologia, 92(4): 463–474.
Andrews P L, 1986. BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN subsystem, part 1. Ogden, UT, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
Andrews P L, Chase C H, 1989. BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN subsystem, part 2. Ogden, UT, USA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
Baker W L, 1989. A review of models of landscape change, Landscape Ecology, 2(2): 111–133.
Baker W L, 1992. The landscape ecology of large disturbances in the design and management of nature reserves. Landscape Ecology, 7(3): 181–194.
Baskent E Z, 1997. Assessment of structural dynamic in forest landscape management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(10): 1675–1684.
Botkin D B, Bartley H A, Wallis J R, 1972. Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth. Journal of Ecology, 60(3): 849–872.
Browder J A, Bartley H A, Davis K S, 1985. A probabilistic model of the relationship between marshland-water interface and marsh disintegration. Ecological Modelling, 29(1): 245–260.
Bugmann H K M, 1996. A simplified forest model to study species composition along climate gradients. Ecology, 77(7): 2055–2074.
Cary G J, Keane R E, Gardner R H et al., 2006. Comparison of the sensitivity of landscape-fire-succession models to variation in terrain, fuel pattern, climate and weather. Landscape Ecology, 21(1): 121–137.
Chen R, Twilley R R, 1998. A gap dynamic model of mangrove forest development along gradients of soil salinity and nutrient resources. Journal of Ecology, 86(1): 37–51.
Collins L, 1975. An Introduction to Markov Chain Analysis. Concepts and Techniques in Modern Geography. Norwich: Geo Abstracts, Univ. of East Anglia.
Collins L, Drewett R, Ferguson R, 1974. Markov models in geography. The Statistician, 23: 179–209.
Feller W, 1968. An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications. New York: Wiley.
Foley J A, Prentice I C, Ramankutty N et al., 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10(4): 603–628.
Franklin J F, Forman R T T, 1987. Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: Ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecology, 1(1): 5–18.
Fu B J, Chen L D, Ma K M et al., 2011. The Principle and Application of Landscape Ecology. 2nd ed. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
Gardner R H, 1987. Assessing regional impacts of growth declines using a forest succession model. Journal of Environmental Management, 24: 83–93.
Gardner R H, Romme W H, Turner, M G, 1999. Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscapes: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 163–185.
Gustafson E J, Shvidenko A Z, Scheller R M, 2011. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41(7): 1405–1421.
Gustafson E J, Shvidenko A Z, Sturtevant B R et al., 2010. Predicting global change effects on forest biomass and composition in south-central Siberia. Ecological Applications, 20(3): 700–715.
Gustafson E J, Zollner P A, Sturtevant B R et al., 2004. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA. Landscape Ecology, 19(3): 327–341.
Hall G M J, Hollinger D Y, 2000. Simulating New Zealand forest dynamics with a generalized temperate forest gap model. Ecological Applications, 10(1): 115–130.
Hardy C C, Schmidt K M, Menakis J P et al., 2001. Spatial data for national fire planning and fuel management. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 10(4): 353–372.
Hargrove W W, Gardner R H, Turner M G et al., 2000. Simulating fire patterns in heterogeneous landscapes. Ecological Modelling, 135(2): 243–263.
He H S, 2008. Forest landscape models: definitions, characterization, and classification. Forest Ecology and Management, 254(3): 484–498.
He H S, Hao Z, Larsen D R et al., 2002. A simulation study of landscape scale forest succession in northeastern China. Ecological Modelling, 156(2): 153–166.
He H S, Hao Z, Mladenoff D J et al., 2005. Simulating forest ecosystem response to climate warming incorporating spatial effects in north-eastern China. Journal of Biogeography, 32(12): 2043–2056.
He H S, Yang J, Shifley S R et al., 2011. Challenges of forest landscape modeling: Simulating large landscapes and validating results. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4): 400–402.
Henderson W, Wilkins C W, 1975. The interaction of bushfires and vegetation. Search, 6(4): 130–133.
Horn H S, Shugart H H, Urban D L, 1989. Simulators as models of forest dynamics. In: Perspectives in Ecological Theory. New Jersey: Princeton University Press: 256–267.
Keane R E, Cary G J, Davies I D et al., 2004. A classification of landscape fire succession models: Spatial simulations of fire and vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 179(1): 3–27.
Keane R E, Cary G J, Parsons R, 2003. Using simulation to map fire regimes: An evaluation of approaches, strategies, and limitations. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 12(4): 309–322.
Keane R E, Morgan P, Running S W, 1996. Fire-BGC: A mechanistic ecological process model for simulating fire succession on coniferous forest landscapes of the northern Rocky Mountains. Ogden, Utah: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
Lafon C W, 2004. Ice-storm disturbance and long-term forest dynamics in the Adirondack Mountains. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15(2): 267–276.
Li C, 2000. Reconstruction of natural fire regimes through ecological modelling. Ecological Modelling, 134(2): 129–144.
Li C, 2002. Estimation of fire frequency and fire cycle: A computational perspective. Ecological Modelling, 154(1): 103–120.
Lischke H, Zimmermann N E, Bolliger J et al., 2006. TreeMig: A forest-landscape model for simulating spatio-temporal patterns from stand to landscape scale. Ecological Modelling, 199(4): 409–420.
Liu J, Ashton P S, 1998. FORMOSAIC: An individual-based spatially explicit model for simulating forest dynamics in landscape mosaics. Ecological Modelling, 106(2): 177–200.
McKendrick A G, 1925. Applications of mathematics to medical problems. Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, 44: 98–130.
Mladenoff D J, 2004. LANDIS and forest landscape models. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 7–19.
Mladenoff D L, Baker W L, 1999. Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Application. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mladenoff D J, Host G E, Boeder J et al., 1993. LANDIS: A model of forest landscape succession and management at multiple scales. Oak Ridge, TN, USA: Proceedings of the Annual US Landscape Ecology Symposium, 77.
Mladenoff D J, Host G E, Boeder J et al., 1996. LANDIS: A spatial model of forest landscape disturbance, succession, and management. Second International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling. Santa Barbara, California: National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, 175–179.
Nonaka E, Spies T A, 2005. Historical range of variability in landscape structure: A simulation study in Oregon, USA. Ecological Applications, 15(5): 1727–1746.
Oster G, Takahashi Y, 1974. Models for age-specific interactions in a periodic environment. Ecological Monographs, 44: 483–501.
Pacala S W, Canham C D, Saponara J et al., 1996. Forest models defined by field measurements: Estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66(1): 1–43.
Pacala S W, Hurtt G C, 1993. Terrestrial vegetation and climate change: Integrating models and experiments. Sunderland MA: Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, 57–74.
Pan Y, McGuire A D, Melillo, J M et al., 2002. A biogeochemistry-based dynamic vegetation model and its application along a moisture gradient in the continental United States. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(3): 369–382.
Pennanen J, Greene D F, Fortin M J et al., 2004. Spatially explicit simulation of long-term boreal forest landscape dynamics: incorporating quantitative stand attributes. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 195–209.
Perry G L W, Enright N J, 2006. Spatial modelling of vegetation change in dynamic landscapes, a review of methods and applications. Progress in Physical Geography, 30(1): 47–72.
Perry G L W, Millington J D A, 2008. Spatial modelling of succession-disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems: Concepts and examples. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9(3): 190–210.
Pickles A, 1980. Models of movement: A review of alternative methods. Environment and Planning A, 12(12): 1383–1404.
Rastetter E B, Ryan M G, Shaver G R et al., 1991. A general biogeochemical model describing the responses of the C and N cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to changes in CO2, climate, and N deposition. Tree Physiology, 9(1/2): 101–126.
Ratz A, 1995. Long-term spatial patterns created by fire: A model oriented towards Boreal Forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 5(1): 25–34.
Running S W, Gower S T, 1991. FOREST-BGC, a general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. II: Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets. Tree Physiology, 9(1/2): 147–160.
Rykiel Jr E J, 1996. Testing ecological models: The meaning of validation. Ecological Modelling, 90(3): 229–244.
Scheller R M, Domingo J B, Sturtevant B R et al., 2007. Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution. Ecological Modelling, 201(3): 409–419.
Scheller R M, Mladenoff D J, 2007. An ecological classification of forest landscape simulation models: Tools and strategies for understanding broad-scale forested ecosystems. Landscape Ecology, 22(4): 491–505.
Schumacher S, Reineking B, Sibold J et al., 2006. Modeling the impact of climate and vegetation on fire regimes in mountain landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 21(4): 539–554.
Seidl R, Rammer W, Scheller R M et al., 2012. An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Modelling, 231: 87–100.
Sessions J, Johnson K N, Franklin J F et al., 1999. Achieving sustainable forest structures on fire-prone land-scapes while pursuing multiple goals. In: Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscapes Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 210–255.
Shao G F, Zhao S D, Shugart H H, 1995. Forest Dynamics Modeling. Beijing: Chinese Forestry Press. (in Chinese)
Shugart H H, 1984. A Theory of Forest Dynamics: The Ecological Implications of Forest Succession Models. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Shugart H H, Noble I R, 1981. A computer model of succession and fire response of the high-altitude Eucalyptus forest of the Brindabella Range, Australian Capital Territory. Australian Journal of Ecology, 6(2): 149–164.
Shugart H H, West D C, 1977. Development of an Appalachian deciduous forest succession model and its application to assessment of the impact of the chestnut blight. Journal of Environmental Management, 5: 161–179.
Sinko J W, Streifer W, 1967. A new model for age-size structure of a population. Ecology, 48: 910–918.
Sinko J W, Streifer W, 1969. Applying models incorporating age-size structure to Daphnia. Ecology, 50: 608–615.
Sklar F H, Costanza R, Day Jr J W, 1985. Dynamic spatial simulation modeling of coastal wetland habitat succession. Ecological Modelling, 29(1): 261–281.
Streifer W, 1974. Realistic models in population ecology. Advances in Ecological Research, 8: 199–266.
Swanson M E, 2009. Modeling the effects of alternative management strategies on forest carbon in the Nothofagus forests of Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(8): 1740–1750.
Syphard A D, Franklin J, 2004. Spatial aggregation effects on the simulation of landscape pattern and ecological processes in southern California plant communities. Ecological Modelling, 180(1): 21–40.
Thompson J R, Foster D R, Scheller R M et al., 2011. The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA. Ecological Applications, 21(7): 2425–2444.
Thompson J R, Johnson K N, Lennette M et al., 2006. Historical disturbance regimes as a reference for forest policy in a multiowner province: A simulation experiment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36(2): 401–417.
Turner M G, 1988. A spatial simulation model of land use changes in a piedmont county in Georgia. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 27(1): 39–51.
Urban D L, Acevedo M F, Garman S L, 1999. Scaling fine-scale processes to large-scale patterns using models derived from models: Meta-models. In: Spatial Modeling of Forest Landscape Change: Approaches and Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 70–98.
Van Hulst R, 1979. On the dynamics of vegetation: Markov chains as models of succession. Vegetatio, 40(1): 3–14.
von Foerster H, 1959. Some Remarks on Changing Populations. New York: The Kinetics of Cellular Proliferation. 382–407.
Wilkie D S, Finn J T, 1988. A spatial model of land use and forest regeneration in the Ituri forest of northeastern Zaire. Ecological Modelling, 41(3): 307–323.
Wilkins C W, 1977. A stochastic analysis of the effect of fire on remote vegetation. South Australia: PhD Diss., Univ. of Adelaide.
Wimberly M C, 2002. Spatial simulation of historical landscape patterns in coastal forests of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32(8): 1316–1328.
Wolfram S, 1984. Cellular automata as models of complexity. Nature, 311: 419–424.
Xi W M, Coulson R N, Birt A G et al., 2009. Review of forest landscape models: Types, methods, development and applications. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(1): 69–78.
Yan X D, Zhao S D, Yu Z L, 2000. Modeling growth and succession of northeastern China forests and its applications in global change studies. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24(1): 1–8. (in Chinese)
Yang J, He H S, Shifley S R et al., 2007. Spatial pattern of modern period human-caused fire occurrence in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. Forest Science, 53(1): 1–15.
Foundation: The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2015CB452702; No.2012CB416906; National Key Technology R&D Program, No.2013BAC03B04; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371196
Author: Dai Erfu (1972–), PhD and Professor, specialized in comprehensive study of physical geography, climate change and regional response, simulation of LUCC.
About this article
Cite this article
Dai, E., Wu, Z., Wang, X. et al. Progress and prospect of research on forest landscape model. J. Geogr. Sci. 25, 113–128 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-015-1157-z
- Forest Landscape Model (FLM)
- development stage
- model classification
- model application
- model development