Monotonic and cyclic tests on kaolin: a database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for cohesive soils with focus to cyclic loading

Abstract

A database with about 60 undrained monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests on kaolin is presented. In the monotonic tests, the influences of consolidation pressure, overconsolidation ratio, displacement rate and sample cutting direction have been studied. In the cyclic tests, the stress amplitude, the initial stress ratio and the control (stress vs. strain cycles) have been additionally varied. Isotropic consolidation leads to a failure due to large strain amplitudes with eight-shaped effective stress paths in the final phase of the cyclic tests, while a failure due to an excessive accumulation of axial strain and lens-shaped effective stress paths was observed in the case of anisotropic consolidation with \(q^{\text{ ampl }}< |q^{\text{ av }}|\). The rate of pore pressure accumulation grew with increasing amplitude and void ratio (i.e. decreasing consolidation pressure and overconsolidation ratio). The “cyclic flow rule” well known for sand has been confirmed also for kaolin: With increasing value of the average stress ratio \(|\eta ^{\text{ av }}| = |q^{\text{ av }}|/p^{\text{ av }}, \) the accumulation of deviatoric strain becomes predominant over the accumulation of pore water pressure. The tests on the samples cut out either horizontally or vertically revealed a significant effect of anisotropy. In the cyclic tests, the two kinds of samples exhibited an opposite inclination of the effective stress path. Furthermore, the horizontal samples showed a higher stiffness and could sustain a much larger number of cycles to failure. All data of the present study are available from the homepage of the first author. They may serve for the examination, calibration or improvement in constitutive models dedicated to cohesive soils under cyclic loading, or for the development of new models.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29

References

  1. 1.

    Abuel-Naga HM, Bergado DT, Ramana GV, Grino L, Rujivipat P, Thet Y (2006) Experimental evaluation of engineering behavior of soft Bangkok clay under elevated temperature. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(7):902–910

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Adachi T, Oka F, Hirata T, Hashimoto T, Nagaya J, Mimura M, Pradhan T (1995) Stress–strain behavior and yielding characteristics of Eastern Osaka clay. Soils Found 35(3):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Akai K, Adachi T, Ando N (1975) Existence of a unique stress–strain–time relation of clays. Soils Found 15(1):1–16

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Andersen KH (1988) Properties of soft clay under static and cyclic loading. NGI Publ 176:1–20

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Andersen KH (2004) Cyclic clay data for foundation design of structures subjected to wave loading. In: Triantafyllidis T (ed) Cyclic behaviour of soils and liquefaction phenomena, proceedings of CBS04, Bochum, pp 371–387. Balkema, 31 March–02 April 2004

  6. 6.

    Andersen KH (2009) Bearing capacity under cyclic loading—offshore, along the coast, and on land. The 21st Bjerrum Lecture presented in Oslo, 23 November 2007. Can Geotech J 46(5):513–535

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Andersen KH, Kleven A, Heien D (1988) Cyclic soil data for design of gravity structures. J Geotech Eng ASCE 114(5):517–539

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Andersen KH, Lauritzsen R (1988) Bearing capacity for foundations with cyclic loads. J Geotech Eng ASCE 114(5):540–555

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Andersen KH, Pool JH, Brown SF, Rosenbrand WF (1980) Cyclic and static laboratory tests on Drammen clay. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT5):499–513

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ansal AM, Erken A (1989) Undrained behavior of clay under cyclic shear stresses. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(7):968–983

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Atkinson J (2007) Peak strength of overconsolidated clays. Géotechnique 57(2):127–135

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Azzouz AS, Malek AM, Mohsen MB (1989) Cyclic behavior of clays in undrained simple shear. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(5):637–657

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Boulanger RW, Idriss IM (2006) Liquefaction susceptibility criteria for silts and clays. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(11):1413–1428

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Boulanger RW, Idriss IM (2007) Evaluation of cyclic softening in silts and clays. Soils Found 133(6):641–652

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Boulanger RW, Meyers MW, Mejia LH, Idriss IM (1998) Behavior of a fine-grained soil during the Loma Prieta earthquake. Can Geotech J 35(1):146–158

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Brown SF, Lashine AKF, Hyde AFL (1975) Repeated load triaxial testing of a silty clay. Géotechnique 25(1):95–114

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Cai Y, Gu C, Wang J, Juang CH, Xu C, Hu X (2013) One-way cyclic triaxial behavior of saturated clay: comparison between constant and variable confining pressure. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(5):797–809

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Campanella RD, Mitchell JK (1968) Influence of temperature variations on soil behavior. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 94(SM3):709–734

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Casey B, Germaine JT (2013) Stress dependence of shear strength in fine-grained soils and correlations with liquid limit. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1709–1717

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Cekerevac C, Laloui L (2010) Experimental analysis of the cyclic behaviour of kaolin at high temperature. Géotechnique 60(8):651–655

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Choo J, Jung Y-H, Cho W, Chung C-K (2013) Effect of pre-shear stress path on nonlinear shear stiffness degradation of cohesive soils. Geotech Test J ASTM 36(2):1–8

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Choo J, Jung Y-H, Chung C-K (2011) Effect of directional stress history on anisotropy of initial stiffness of cohesive soils measured by bender element tests. Soils Found 51(4):737–747

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chu DB, Stewart JP, Boulanger RW, Lin PS (2008) Cyclic softening of low-plasticity clay and its effect on seismic foundation performance. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 134(11):1595–1608

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Chu H, Vucetic M (1992) Settlement of campacted clay in a cyclic direct simple shear device. Geotech Test J ASTM 15(4):371–379

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Demars KR, Charles RD (1982) Soil volume changes induced by temperature cycling. Can Geotech J 19:188–194

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Díaz-Rodríguez JA, Martinez-Vasquez JJ, Santamarina JC (2009) Strain-rate effects in Mexico City soil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 135(2):300–305

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    d’Onofrio A, Silvestri F, Vinale F (1999) Strain rate dependent behaviour of a natural stiff clay. Soils Found 39(2):69–82

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Duncan JM, Seed HB (1966) Anisotropy and stress reorientation in clay. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 92(SM5):21–52

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Finno RJ, Chung CK (1992) Stress–strain–strength responses of compressible Chicago glacial clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 118(10):1607–1625

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Frost MW, Fleming PR, Rogers CDF (2004) Cyclic triaxial tests on clay subgrades for analytical pavement design. J Transp Eng 130(3):378–386

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Gasparre A, Hight DW, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2014) The laboratory measurement and interpretation of the small-strain stiffness of stiff clays. Géotechnique 64(12):942–953

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Gasparre A, Nishimura S, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2007) The influence of structure on the behavior of London clay. Géotechnique 57(1):19–31

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Gasparre A, Nishimura S, Minh NA, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2007) The stiffness of natural London clay. Géotechnique 57(1):33–47

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Goulois AM, Whitman RV, Hoeg K (1985) Effects of sustained shear stresses on the cyclic degradation of clay. In: Chaney RC, Demars KR (eds) Strength testing of marine sediments; ASTM STP 883. ASTM, Philadelphia, pp 336–351

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Graham G, Crooks JHA, Bell AL (1983) Time effects on the stress–strain behaviour of soft natural clays. Géotechnique 33(3):327–340

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Gratchev I, Sassa K, Osipov V, Fukuoka H, Wang G (2007) Undrained cyclic behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures and factors affecting it. Geotech Geol Eng 25(3):349–367

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Gratchev I, Sassa K, Osipov V, Sokolov V (2006) The liquefaction of clayey soils under cyclic loading. Eng Geol 86(1):70–84

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Gratchev IB, Sassa K (2013) Cyclic shear strength of soil with different pore fluids. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1817–1821

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Gratchev IB, Sassa K, Fukuoka H (2006) How reliable is the plasticity index for estimating the liquefaction potential of clayey sands? J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(1):124–127

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Gratchev IB, Sassa K (2009) Cyclic behavior of fine-grained soils at different pH values. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 135(2):271–279

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Gu C, Wang J, Cai Y, Guo L (2014) Influence of cyclic loading history on small strain shear modulus of saturated clays. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 66:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Gu C, Wang J, Cai Y, Yang Z, Gao Y (2012) Undrained cyclic triaxial behavior of saturated clays under variable confining pressure. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 40:118–128

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Guo L, Wang J, Cai Y, Lui H, Gao Y, Sun H (2013) Undrained deformation behavior of saturated soft clay under long-term cyclic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 50:28–37

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Guo T, Prakash S (1999) Liquefaction of silt and silt-clay mixtures. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 125(8):706–710

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Gylland AS, Jostad HP (2014) Experimental study of strain localization in sensitive clays. Acta Geotechnica 9:227–240

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hanna AM, Javed K (2014) Experimental investigation of foundations on sensitive clay subjected to cyclic loading. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(11):04014065-1–04014065-12

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Hicher P-Y, Wahyudi H, Tessier D (2000) Microstructural analysis of inherent and induced anisotropy in clay. Mech Cohesive Frict Mater 5(5):341–371

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Hight DW, Bond AJ, Legge JD (1992) Characterization of the Bothkennar clay: an overview. Géotechnique 42(2):303–347

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Hsu C-C, Vucetic M (2004) Volumetric threshold shear strain for cyclic settlement. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(1):58–70

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Hsu C-C, Vucetic M (2006) Threshold shear strain for cyclic pore-water pressure in cohesive soils. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(10):1325–1335

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Hyde AFL, Yasuhara K, Hirao K (1993) Stability criteria for marine clay under one-way cyclic loading. J Geotech Eng ASCE 119(11):1771–1789

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Hyodo M, Hyde AFL, Yamamoto Y, Fujii T (1999) Cyclic shear strength of undisturbed and remoulded marine clays. Soils Found 39(2):45–58

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Hyodo M, Yamamoto Y, Sugiyama M (1994) Undrained cyclic shear behaviour of normally consolidated clay subjected to initial static shear stress. Soils Found 34(4):1–11

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Hyodo M, Yasuhara K, Hirao K (1992) Prediction of clay behavior in undrained and partially drained cyclic triaxial tests. Soils Found 32(4):117–127

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Ishibashi I, Zhang X (1993) Unified dynamic shear moduli and damping ratios of sand and clay. Soils Found 33(1):182–191

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Ishihara K, Troncoso J, Kawase Y, Takahashi Y (1980) Cyclic strength characteristics of tailings materials. Soils Found 20:127–142

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Kawaguchi T, Tanaka H (2008) Formulation of \(G_{\max }\) from reconstituted clayey soils and its application to \(G_{\max }\) measured in the field. Soils Found 48(6):821–831

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Kim TC, Novak M (1981) Dynamic properties of some cohesive soils of Ontario. Can Geotech J 18:371–389

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Kokusho T, Yoshida Y, Esashi Y (1982) Dynamic properties of soft clays for wide strain range. Soils Found 22(4):1–18

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Koutsoftas D, Fischer J (1980) Dynamic properties of two marine clays. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT6):645–657

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Ladd CC (1991) Stability evaluation during staged construction. J Geotech Eng ASCE 117(4):540–615

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Ladd CC, Foott R (1974) New design procedure for stability of soft clays. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 100(GT7):763–786

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Lanzo G, Pagliaroli A, Tommasi P, Chiocci FL (2009) Simple shear testing of sensitive, very soft offshore clay for wide strain range. Can Geotech J 46(11):1277–1288

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Lashine AK (1971) Some aspects of the characteristics of Keuper marl under repeated loading. Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham

  65. 65.

    Lee C-J, Sheu S-F (2007) The stiffness degradation and damping ratio evolution of Taipei Silty Clay under cyclic straining. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(8):730–740

    Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Lefebvre G, LeBoeuf D (1987) Rate effects and cyclic loading of sensitive clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 113(5):476–489

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Lefebvre G, Pfendler P (1996) Strain rate and preshear effects in cyclic resistance of soft clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(1):21–26

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Li D, Selig ET (1996) Cumulative plastic deformation for fine-grained subgrade soils. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(12):1006–1013

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Li LL, Dan HB, Wang LZ (2011) Undrained behavior of natural marine clay under cyclic loading. Ocean Eng 38:1792–1805

    Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Likitlersuang S, Teachavorasinskun S, Surarak C, Oh E, Balasubramaniam A (2013) Small strain stiffness and stiffness degradation curve of Bangkok clays. Soils Found 53(4):498–509

    Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Lo KY, Morin JP (1972) Strength anisotropy and time effects of two sensitive clays. Can Geotech J 9(3):261–277

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Lo KY (1965) Stability of slopes in anisotropic soils. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 91(SM4):85–106

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Lunne T, Berre T, Andersen KH, Strandvik S, Sjursen M (2006) Effects of sample disturbance and consolidation procedures on measured shear strength of soft marine Norwegian clays. Can Geotech J 43:726–750

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Macky TA, Saada AS (1984) Dynamics of anisotropic clays under large strains. J Geotech Eng ASCE 110(4):487–504

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Malek AM (1987) Cyclic behavior of clay in undrained simple shearing and application to offshore tension piles. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

  76. 76.

    Malek AM, Azzouz AS, Baligh MM, Germaine JT (1989) Behavior of foundation clays supporting compliant offshore structures. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(5):615–635

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Matasovic M, Vucetic N (1992) A pore pressure model for cyclic straining of clay. Soils Found 32(3):156–173

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Matasovic N, Vucetic M (1995) Generalized cyclic-degradation-pore-pressure generation model for clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 121(1):33–42

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Matešic L, Vucetic M (2003) Strain-rate effect on soil secant shear modulus at small cyclic strains. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 129(6):536–549

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Matsuda H, Nhan TT, Ishikura R (2013) Prediction of excess pore water pressure and post-cyclic settlement on soft clay induced by uni-directional and multi-directional cyclic shears as a function of strain path parameters. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 49:75–88

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Matsui T, Ohara H, Ito T (1980) Cyclic stress–strain history and shear characteristics of clay. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT10):1101–1120

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Mitchell RJ (1970) On the yielding and mechanical strength of Leda clays. Can Geotech J 7:297–312

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Mitchell RJ, Wong PKK (1973) The generalized failure of an Ottawa Valley Champlain clay. Can Geotech J 10:607–616

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Mortezaie AR, Vucetic M (2013) Effect of frequency and vertical stress on cyclic degradation and pore water pressure in clay in the NGI simple shear device. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1727–1737

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Nagase H, Shimizu K, Hiro-oka A, Tanoue Y, Saitoh Y (2006) Earthquake-induced residual deformation of Ariake clay deposits with leaching. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 26(2–4):209–220

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Ng CWW, Liu GB, Li Q (2013) Investigation of the long-term tunnel settlement mechanisms of the first metro line in Shanghai. Can Geotech J 50(6):674–684

    Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Niemunis A, Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2005) A high-cycle accumulation model for sand. Comput Geotech 32(4):245–263

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Ohara S, Matsuda H (1988) Study on the settlement of saturated clay layer induced by cyclic shear. Soils Found 28(3):103–113

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Okur DV, Ansal A (2007) Stiffness degradation of natural fine grained soils during cyclic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(9):843–854

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    O’Reilly MP, Brown SF, Overy RF (1989) Viscous effects observed in tests on an anisotropically normally consolidated silty clay. Géotechnique 39(1):153–158

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Parry RHG (1960) Triaxial compression and extension tests on remoulded saturated clay. Géotechnique 10:166–180

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Patiño H, Soriano A, González J (2013) Failure of a soft cohesive soil subjected to combined static and cyclic loading. Soils Found 53(6):910–922

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Pennington DS, Nash DFT, Lings ML (1997) Anisotropy of \(G_0\) shear stiffness in Gault clay. Géotechnique 47(3):391–398

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Penumadu D, Skandarajah A, Chameau J-L (1998) Strain rate effects in pressuremeter testing using a cuboidal shear device: experiments and modeling. Can Geotech J 35:27–42

    Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Procter DC, Khaffaf J (1984) Cyclic triaxial tests on remolded clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 110(10):1431–1445

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Puri VK (1984) Liquefaction behavior and dynamic properties of loessial (silty) soils. Ph.D. thesis, University of Missouri-Rollo

  97. 97.

    Rampello S, Callisto L (1998) A study on the subsoil of the Tower of Pisa based on results from standard and high-quality samples. Can Geotech J 35(6):1074–1092

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Ratananikom W, Likitlersuang S, Yimsiri S (2012) An investigation of anisotropic elastic parameters of Bangkok clay from vertical and horizontal cut specimens. Geomech Geoeng Int J 8(1):15–27

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Romero S (1995) The behavior of silt as clay content is increased. Master’s thesis, University of California, Davis, California

  100. 100.

    Roscoe KH, Schofield AN, Wroth CP (1958) On the yielding of soils. Géotechnique 8(1):22–53

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Shibuya S, Mitachi T, Fukuda F, Degoshi T (1995) Strain rate effects on shear modulus and damping of normally consolidated clay. Geotech Test J ASTM 18(3):365–375

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Saada A, Bianchini G, Liang L (1994) Cracks, bifurcation and shear band propagation in saturated clays. Géotechnique 44(1):35–64

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Sakai A, Samang L, Miura N (2003) Partially-drained cyclic behavior and its application to the settlement of a low embankment road on silty-clay. Soils Found 43(1):33–46

    Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Santagata M, Germaine JT, Ladd CC (2007) Small-strain nonlinearity of normally consolidated clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 133(1):72–82

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Seed HB, Chan CK (1966) Clay strength under earthquake loading conditions. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 92(SM2):53–78

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Seng S, Tanaka H (2012) Properties of very soft clays: a study of thixotropic hardening and behavior under low consolidation pressure. Soils Found 52(2):335–345

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Sheahan TC, Ladd CC, Germaine JT (1996) Rate dependent undrained shear behavior of saturated clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(2):99–108

    Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Shibuya S, Mitachi T (1994) Small strain modulus of clay sedimentation in a state of normal consolidation. Soils Found 34(4):67–77

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Shogaki T, Kumagai N (2008) A slope stability analysis considering undrained strength anisotropy of natural clay deposits. Soils Found 48(6):805–819

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Sivakumar V, Doran IG, Graham J (2002) Particle orientation and its influence on the mechanical behavior of isotropically consolidated reconstituted clay. Eng Geol 66:197–209

    Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Sorensen KK, Baudet BA, Simpson B (2007) Influence of structure on the time-dependent behaviour of a stiff sedimentary clay. Géotechnique 57(1):113–124

    Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Stokoe KH, Darendeli MB, Andrus RD, Brown LT (1999) Dynamic soil properties: laboratory, field and correlation studies. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, vol 3. A.A. Balkema, pp 811–845

  113. 113.

    Su D, Wu WL, Du ZY, Yan WM (2014) Cyclic degradation of a multidirectionally laterally loaded rigid single pile model in compacted clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(5):06014002-1–06014002-7

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Tang Y-Q, Zhou J, Liu S, Yang P, Wang J-X (2011) Test on cyclic creep behavior of mucky clay in Shanghai under step cyclic loading. EES 63:321–327

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Teachavorasinskun S, Thongchim P, Lukkunaprasit P (2002) Shear modulus and damping of soft Bangkog clays. Can Geothech J 39(5):1201–1208

    Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Vaid YP, Campanella RG (1977) Time dependent behavior of undisturbed clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 103(7):693–709

    Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Vaid YP, Robertson PK, Campanella RG (1979) Strain rate behaviour of the Saint-Jean-Vianney clay. Can Geotech J 16(1):34–42

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Van Eekelen HAM, Potts DM (1978) The behavior of Drammen clay under cyclic loading. Géotechnique 28(2):173–196

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Vardanega PJ, Bolton MD (2013) Stiffness of clays and silts: normalizing shear modulus and shear strain. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(9):1575–1589

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Vardanega PJ, Bolton MD (2014) Stiffness of clays and silts: modeling considerations. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(6):06014004-1–06014004-7

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Viggiani G, Atkinson JH (1995) Stiffness of fine-grained soil at very small strains. Géotechnique 45(2):249–265

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Voznesensky EA, Nordal S (1999) Dynamic instability of clays: an energy approach. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 18:125–133

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Vucetic M (1988) Normalized behavior of offshore clay under uniform cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 25:33–41

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Vucetic M (1994) Cyclic threshold shear strains in soils. J Geotech Eng ASCE 120(12):2208–2228

    Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Wichtmann T www.torsten-wichtmann.de Homepage

  126. 126.

    Wichtmann T, Andersen KH, Sjursen MA, Berre T (2013) Cyclic behaviour of high-quality undisturbed block samples of Onsøy clay. Can Geotech J 50(4):400–412

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2013) On the elastic stiffness in a high-cycle accumulation model—continued investigations. Can Geotech J 50(12):1260–1272

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2014) Flow rule in a high-cycle accumulation model backed by cyclic test data of 22 sands. Acta Geotechnica 9(4):695–709

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Wichtmann T, Rondón HA, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T, Lizcano A (2010) Prediction of permanent deformations in pavements using a high-cycle accumulation model. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 136(5):728–740

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2016) An experimental data base for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading. Part I: tests with monotonic loading and stress cycles. Acta Geotechnica 11(4):739–761

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2016) An experimental data base for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading. Part II: tests with strain cycles and combined cyclic and monotonic loading. Acta Geotechnica 11(4):763–774

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Xiao J, Juang CH, Wei K, Xu S (2014) Effects of principal stress rotation on the cumulative deformation of normally consolidated soft clay under subway traffic loading. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(4):04013046-1–04013046-9

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Yasuhara K, Hirao K, Hyde A (1992) Effects of cyclic loading on undrained strength and compressibility of clay. Soils Found 32(1):100–116

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Yasuhara K, Yamanouchi T, Hirao K (1982) Cyclic strength and deformation of normally consolidated clay. Soils Found 22(3):77–91

    Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Yimsiri S, Soga K (2011) Cross-anisotropic elastic parameters of two natural stiff clays. Géotechnique 61(9):809–814

    Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Zergoun M, Vaid YP (1994) Effective stress response of clay to undrained cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 31:714–727

    Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Zhou J, Gong X (2001) Strain degradation of saturated clay under cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 38:208–212

    Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Zimmie TF, Lien CY (1986) Response of clay subjected to combined cyclic and initial static shear stress. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Canadian conference on marine geotechnical engineering vol 2, pp 655–675

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by German Research Council (DFG) in the framework of the project “Behaviour of cohesive soils under high-cyclic loading: Experimental studies and constitutive description” (WI 3180/2-1). The financial support by DFG is gratefully acknowledged herewith. The tests have been performed by the technicians H. Borowski and F. Schwab in the IBF soil mechanics laboratory.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Torsten Wichtmann.

Appendix: Generalized flow rule considering anisotropy

Appendix: Generalized flow rule considering anisotropy

The equations for the generalized flow rule applied in Sect. 4.4 are briefly outlined in the following. The generalized flow rule has been proposed in [129] as a component of the high-cycle accumulation (HCA) model of Niemunis et al. [87]. It allows for considering anisotropy. The equations do not distinguish between an inherent and an induced anisotropy. A second-order anisotropy tensor

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{a}= & {} {\varvec{\sigma }}^*/p \end{aligned}$$
(4)

is introduced with \({\varvec{\sigma }}\) being a stress for which the flow rule is assumed purely volumetric, \(\mathbf{m}(\mathbf{a})\,=\,\vec{\mathbf{1}}\). The deviatoric part of \({\varvec{\sigma }}\) is denoted as \({\varvec{\sigma }}^*\). The isotropic flow rule can be recovered by setting \(\mathbf{a}= {\mathbf{0}}\). For the critical state, the flow rule is purely deviatoric. For an intermediate stress \({\varvec{\sigma }}, \) an interpolation is used. Given \(\mathbf{a}\), the stress \({\varvec{\sigma }}\) is projected radially onto the deviatoric plane expressed by \(p = 1\). Next, the projected stress \({\varvec{\sigma }}/p\) is decomposed as follows (Fig. 30a):

$$\begin{aligned} {\varvec{\sigma }}/p= & {} {\mathbf{1}}+ \mathbf{r}\,=\, {\mathbf{1}}+ {\varvec{\sigma }}^*/p \end{aligned}$$
(5)

The conjugated stress \(\mathbf{t}\) is found from

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{t}= & {} {\mathbf{1}}+ \mathbf{a}+ \lambda (\mathbf{r}- \mathbf{a}) \end{aligned}$$
(6)

It should lie on the critical surface at \(p = 1\) (Fig. 30b). For that purpose, the scalar multiplier \(\lambda \) must be determined from the condition that the conjugated stress \(\mathbf{t}\) satisfies

$$\begin{aligned} \text{ tr }\,\mathbf{t}\, \text{ tr }\,(\mathbf{t}^{-1}) = Y_c \,\,\,\,\,\hbox {or} \,\,\,\,\, \text{ tr }\,( \mathbf{t}^{-1}) = -Y_c/3 \end{aligned}$$
(7)

with \(Y_c\) calculated from:

$$\begin{aligned} Y_{c}= & {} \frac{9 - \sin ^2{\varphi _{cc}}}{1 - \sin ^2{\varphi _{cc}}} \end{aligned}$$
(8)

Therein \(\varphi _{cc}\) is a material constant being similar (but not necessarily identical) to the critical friction angle \(\varphi _c\) derived from monotonic shear tests. Having found \(\lambda \) the generalized flow rule is calculated from

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{m}= \frac{1}{\sqrt{(1 - \lambda ^{-n})^2 + (\lambda ^{-n})^2}} \left[ \vec{\mathbf{1}}{(1 - \lambda ^{-n})} + {\lambda ^{-n}} (\mathbf{t}^*)^{\rightarrow } \right] \end{aligned}$$
(9)

wherein n is an interpolation parameter (another material constant). Linear interpolation is obtained with \(n=1\).

Fig. 30
figure30

a Projection of stress \({\varvec{\sigma }}\) on the surface \(p = 1\), b determination of the conjugated stress \(\mathbf{t}\)

As an example, the flow rule \(\mathbf{m}\) for the axisymmetric stress state in a triaxial test with the diagonal components

$$\begin{aligned} {\varvec{\sigma }}= & {} {\text{ diag }}(\sigma _1,\sigma _3,\sigma _3) \end{aligned}$$
(10)

and for a transversal isotropy

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{a}= & {} {\text{ diag }}(a, -a/2, -a/2). \end{aligned}$$
(11)

is derived. The parameter a and the stress ratio \(\eta _{\text{ iso }}\) for which the accumulation is purely volumetric are interrelated via

$$\begin{aligned} a= & {} -2/3 ~ \eta _{\text{ iso }}. \end{aligned}$$
(12)

Furthermore,

$$\begin{aligned} \mathbf{r}= & {} {\text{ diag }}(r, -r/2, -r/2) \,\,\,\, \hbox {with} \,\,\,\, r = -2/3 \, \eta \end{aligned}$$
(13)

holds. From two solutions of Eq. (7)

$$\begin{aligned} \lambda _{1|2}= & {} \frac{1}{2 (a-r)^2 Y_c} \left[ -9 a \right. \nonumber \\&\left. +\,3 \left( 3 r \pm \sqrt{(a-r)^2 (Y_c -9) (Y_c -1)}\right) \right. \nonumber \\&\left. +\,(2 a+1) (a-r) Y_c\right] \end{aligned}$$
(14)

the positive one is chosen as \(\lambda \). Finally, the strain rate ratio \(\omega = \dot{\varepsilon }_v^{\text{ acc }}/\dot{\varepsilon }_q^{\text{ acc }}\) shown in Fig. 19 is calculated from

$$\begin{aligned} \omega= & {} \frac{1 - \lambda ^{-n}}{\lambda ^{-n}} \,\,\, \hbox {or} \,\,\, \omega \,=\, - \frac{1 - \lambda ^{-n}}{\lambda ^{-n}} \end{aligned}$$
(15)

for triaxial compression or extension, respectively.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wichtmann, T., Triantafyllidis, T. Monotonic and cyclic tests on kaolin: a database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for cohesive soils with focus to cyclic loading. Acta Geotech. 13, 1103–1128 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-017-0588-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cyclic loading
  • Database
  • kaolin
  • Monotonic loading
  • Triaxial tests
  • Undrained conditions