Acta Geotechnica

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 1103–1128 | Cite as

Monotonic and cyclic tests on kaolin: a database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for cohesive soils with focus to cyclic loading

  • Torsten WichtmannEmail author
  • Theodoros Triantafyllidis
Research Paper


A database with about 60 undrained monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests on kaolin is presented. In the monotonic tests, the influences of consolidation pressure, overconsolidation ratio, displacement rate and sample cutting direction have been studied. In the cyclic tests, the stress amplitude, the initial stress ratio and the control (stress vs. strain cycles) have been additionally varied. Isotropic consolidation leads to a failure due to large strain amplitudes with eight-shaped effective stress paths in the final phase of the cyclic tests, while a failure due to an excessive accumulation of axial strain and lens-shaped effective stress paths was observed in the case of anisotropic consolidation with \(q^{\text{ ampl }}< |q^{\text{ av }}|\). The rate of pore pressure accumulation grew with increasing amplitude and void ratio (i.e. decreasing consolidation pressure and overconsolidation ratio). The “cyclic flow rule” well known for sand has been confirmed also for kaolin: With increasing value of the average stress ratio \(|\eta ^{\text{ av }}| = |q^{\text{ av }}|/p^{\text{ av }}, \) the accumulation of deviatoric strain becomes predominant over the accumulation of pore water pressure. The tests on the samples cut out either horizontally or vertically revealed a significant effect of anisotropy. In the cyclic tests, the two kinds of samples exhibited an opposite inclination of the effective stress path. Furthermore, the horizontal samples showed a higher stiffness and could sustain a much larger number of cycles to failure. All data of the present study are available from the homepage of the first author. They may serve for the examination, calibration or improvement in constitutive models dedicated to cohesive soils under cyclic loading, or for the development of new models.


Cyclic loading Database kaolin Monotonic loading Triaxial tests Undrained conditions 



This research was funded by German Research Council (DFG) in the framework of the project “Behaviour of cohesive soils under high-cyclic loading: Experimental studies and constitutive description” (WI 3180/2-1). The financial support by DFG is gratefully acknowledged herewith. The tests have been performed by the technicians H. Borowski and F. Schwab in the IBF soil mechanics laboratory.


  1. 1.
    Abuel-Naga HM, Bergado DT, Ramana GV, Grino L, Rujivipat P, Thet Y (2006) Experimental evaluation of engineering behavior of soft Bangkok clay under elevated temperature. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(7):902–910Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adachi T, Oka F, Hirata T, Hashimoto T, Nagaya J, Mimura M, Pradhan T (1995) Stress–strain behavior and yielding characteristics of Eastern Osaka clay. Soils Found 35(3):1–13Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akai K, Adachi T, Ando N (1975) Existence of a unique stress–strain–time relation of clays. Soils Found 15(1):1–16Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen KH (1988) Properties of soft clay under static and cyclic loading. NGI Publ 176:1–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersen KH (2004) Cyclic clay data for foundation design of structures subjected to wave loading. In: Triantafyllidis T (ed) Cyclic behaviour of soils and liquefaction phenomena, proceedings of CBS04, Bochum, pp 371–387. Balkema, 31 March–02 April 2004Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andersen KH (2009) Bearing capacity under cyclic loading—offshore, along the coast, and on land. The 21st Bjerrum Lecture presented in Oslo, 23 November 2007. Can Geotech J 46(5):513–535Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andersen KH, Kleven A, Heien D (1988) Cyclic soil data for design of gravity structures. J Geotech Eng ASCE 114(5):517–539Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andersen KH, Lauritzsen R (1988) Bearing capacity for foundations with cyclic loads. J Geotech Eng ASCE 114(5):540–555Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andersen KH, Pool JH, Brown SF, Rosenbrand WF (1980) Cyclic and static laboratory tests on Drammen clay. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT5):499–513Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ansal AM, Erken A (1989) Undrained behavior of clay under cyclic shear stresses. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(7):968–983Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atkinson J (2007) Peak strength of overconsolidated clays. Géotechnique 57(2):127–135Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azzouz AS, Malek AM, Mohsen MB (1989) Cyclic behavior of clays in undrained simple shear. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(5):637–657Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boulanger RW, Idriss IM (2006) Liquefaction susceptibility criteria for silts and clays. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(11):1413–1428Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boulanger RW, Idriss IM (2007) Evaluation of cyclic softening in silts and clays. Soils Found 133(6):641–652Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boulanger RW, Meyers MW, Mejia LH, Idriss IM (1998) Behavior of a fine-grained soil during the Loma Prieta earthquake. Can Geotech J 35(1):146–158Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown SF, Lashine AKF, Hyde AFL (1975) Repeated load triaxial testing of a silty clay. Géotechnique 25(1):95–114Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cai Y, Gu C, Wang J, Juang CH, Xu C, Hu X (2013) One-way cyclic triaxial behavior of saturated clay: comparison between constant and variable confining pressure. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(5):797–809Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Campanella RD, Mitchell JK (1968) Influence of temperature variations on soil behavior. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 94(SM3):709–734Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Casey B, Germaine JT (2013) Stress dependence of shear strength in fine-grained soils and correlations with liquid limit. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1709–1717Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cekerevac C, Laloui L (2010) Experimental analysis of the cyclic behaviour of kaolin at high temperature. Géotechnique 60(8):651–655Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choo J, Jung Y-H, Cho W, Chung C-K (2013) Effect of pre-shear stress path on nonlinear shear stiffness degradation of cohesive soils. Geotech Test J ASTM 36(2):1–8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Choo J, Jung Y-H, Chung C-K (2011) Effect of directional stress history on anisotropy of initial stiffness of cohesive soils measured by bender element tests. Soils Found 51(4):737–747Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chu DB, Stewart JP, Boulanger RW, Lin PS (2008) Cyclic softening of low-plasticity clay and its effect on seismic foundation performance. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 134(11):1595–1608Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chu H, Vucetic M (1992) Settlement of campacted clay in a cyclic direct simple shear device. Geotech Test J ASTM 15(4):371–379Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Demars KR, Charles RD (1982) Soil volume changes induced by temperature cycling. Can Geotech J 19:188–194Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Díaz-Rodríguez JA, Martinez-Vasquez JJ, Santamarina JC (2009) Strain-rate effects in Mexico City soil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 135(2):300–305Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    d’Onofrio A, Silvestri F, Vinale F (1999) Strain rate dependent behaviour of a natural stiff clay. Soils Found 39(2):69–82Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Duncan JM, Seed HB (1966) Anisotropy and stress reorientation in clay. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 92(SM5):21–52Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Finno RJ, Chung CK (1992) Stress–strain–strength responses of compressible Chicago glacial clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 118(10):1607–1625Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frost MW, Fleming PR, Rogers CDF (2004) Cyclic triaxial tests on clay subgrades for analytical pavement design. J Transp Eng 130(3):378–386Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gasparre A, Hight DW, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2014) The laboratory measurement and interpretation of the small-strain stiffness of stiff clays. Géotechnique 64(12):942–953Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gasparre A, Nishimura S, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2007) The influence of structure on the behavior of London clay. Géotechnique 57(1):19–31Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gasparre A, Nishimura S, Minh NA, Coop MR, Jardine RJ (2007) The stiffness of natural London clay. Géotechnique 57(1):33–47Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goulois AM, Whitman RV, Hoeg K (1985) Effects of sustained shear stresses on the cyclic degradation of clay. In: Chaney RC, Demars KR (eds) Strength testing of marine sediments; ASTM STP 883. ASTM, Philadelphia, pp 336–351Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Graham G, Crooks JHA, Bell AL (1983) Time effects on the stress–strain behaviour of soft natural clays. Géotechnique 33(3):327–340Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gratchev I, Sassa K, Osipov V, Fukuoka H, Wang G (2007) Undrained cyclic behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures and factors affecting it. Geotech Geol Eng 25(3):349–367Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gratchev I, Sassa K, Osipov V, Sokolov V (2006) The liquefaction of clayey soils under cyclic loading. Eng Geol 86(1):70–84Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gratchev IB, Sassa K (2013) Cyclic shear strength of soil with different pore fluids. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1817–1821Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gratchev IB, Sassa K, Fukuoka H (2006) How reliable is the plasticity index for estimating the liquefaction potential of clayey sands? J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(1):124–127Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gratchev IB, Sassa K (2009) Cyclic behavior of fine-grained soils at different pH values. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 135(2):271–279Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gu C, Wang J, Cai Y, Guo L (2014) Influence of cyclic loading history on small strain shear modulus of saturated clays. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 66:1–12Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gu C, Wang J, Cai Y, Yang Z, Gao Y (2012) Undrained cyclic triaxial behavior of saturated clays under variable confining pressure. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 40:118–128Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guo L, Wang J, Cai Y, Lui H, Gao Y, Sun H (2013) Undrained deformation behavior of saturated soft clay under long-term cyclic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 50:28–37Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guo T, Prakash S (1999) Liquefaction of silt and silt-clay mixtures. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 125(8):706–710Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gylland AS, Jostad HP (2014) Experimental study of strain localization in sensitive clays. Acta Geotechnica 9:227–240Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hanna AM, Javed K (2014) Experimental investigation of foundations on sensitive clay subjected to cyclic loading. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(11):04014065-1–04014065-12Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hicher P-Y, Wahyudi H, Tessier D (2000) Microstructural analysis of inherent and induced anisotropy in clay. Mech Cohesive Frict Mater 5(5):341–371Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hight DW, Bond AJ, Legge JD (1992) Characterization of the Bothkennar clay: an overview. Géotechnique 42(2):303–347Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hsu C-C, Vucetic M (2004) Volumetric threshold shear strain for cyclic settlement. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(1):58–70Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hsu C-C, Vucetic M (2006) Threshold shear strain for cyclic pore-water pressure in cohesive soils. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 132(10):1325–1335Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hyde AFL, Yasuhara K, Hirao K (1993) Stability criteria for marine clay under one-way cyclic loading. J Geotech Eng ASCE 119(11):1771–1789Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hyodo M, Hyde AFL, Yamamoto Y, Fujii T (1999) Cyclic shear strength of undisturbed and remoulded marine clays. Soils Found 39(2):45–58Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hyodo M, Yamamoto Y, Sugiyama M (1994) Undrained cyclic shear behaviour of normally consolidated clay subjected to initial static shear stress. Soils Found 34(4):1–11Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hyodo M, Yasuhara K, Hirao K (1992) Prediction of clay behavior in undrained and partially drained cyclic triaxial tests. Soils Found 32(4):117–127Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ishibashi I, Zhang X (1993) Unified dynamic shear moduli and damping ratios of sand and clay. Soils Found 33(1):182–191Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ishihara K, Troncoso J, Kawase Y, Takahashi Y (1980) Cyclic strength characteristics of tailings materials. Soils Found 20:127–142Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kawaguchi T, Tanaka H (2008) Formulation of \(G_{\max }\) from reconstituted clayey soils and its application to \(G_{\max }\) measured in the field. Soils Found 48(6):821–831Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim TC, Novak M (1981) Dynamic properties of some cohesive soils of Ontario. Can Geotech J 18:371–389Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kokusho T, Yoshida Y, Esashi Y (1982) Dynamic properties of soft clays for wide strain range. Soils Found 22(4):1–18Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Koutsoftas D, Fischer J (1980) Dynamic properties of two marine clays. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT6):645–657Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ladd CC (1991) Stability evaluation during staged construction. J Geotech Eng ASCE 117(4):540–615Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ladd CC, Foott R (1974) New design procedure for stability of soft clays. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 100(GT7):763–786Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lanzo G, Pagliaroli A, Tommasi P, Chiocci FL (2009) Simple shear testing of sensitive, very soft offshore clay for wide strain range. Can Geotech J 46(11):1277–1288Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lashine AK (1971) Some aspects of the characteristics of Keuper marl under repeated loading. Ph.D. thesis, University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee C-J, Sheu S-F (2007) The stiffness degradation and damping ratio evolution of Taipei Silty Clay under cyclic straining. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(8):730–740Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lefebvre G, LeBoeuf D (1987) Rate effects and cyclic loading of sensitive clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 113(5):476–489Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lefebvre G, Pfendler P (1996) Strain rate and preshear effects in cyclic resistance of soft clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(1):21–26Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Li D, Selig ET (1996) Cumulative plastic deformation for fine-grained subgrade soils. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(12):1006–1013Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Li LL, Dan HB, Wang LZ (2011) Undrained behavior of natural marine clay under cyclic loading. Ocean Eng 38:1792–1805Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Likitlersuang S, Teachavorasinskun S, Surarak C, Oh E, Balasubramaniam A (2013) Small strain stiffness and stiffness degradation curve of Bangkok clays. Soils Found 53(4):498–509Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lo KY, Morin JP (1972) Strength anisotropy and time effects of two sensitive clays. Can Geotech J 9(3):261–277Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lo KY (1965) Stability of slopes in anisotropic soils. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 91(SM4):85–106Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lunne T, Berre T, Andersen KH, Strandvik S, Sjursen M (2006) Effects of sample disturbance and consolidation procedures on measured shear strength of soft marine Norwegian clays. Can Geotech J 43:726–750Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Macky TA, Saada AS (1984) Dynamics of anisotropic clays under large strains. J Geotech Eng ASCE 110(4):487–504Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Malek AM (1987) Cyclic behavior of clay in undrained simple shearing and application to offshore tension piles. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Malek AM, Azzouz AS, Baligh MM, Germaine JT (1989) Behavior of foundation clays supporting compliant offshore structures. J Geotech Eng ASCE 115(5):615–635Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Matasovic M, Vucetic N (1992) A pore pressure model for cyclic straining of clay. Soils Found 32(3):156–173Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Matasovic N, Vucetic M (1995) Generalized cyclic-degradation-pore-pressure generation model for clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 121(1):33–42Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Matešic L, Vucetic M (2003) Strain-rate effect on soil secant shear modulus at small cyclic strains. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 129(6):536–549Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Matsuda H, Nhan TT, Ishikura R (2013) Prediction of excess pore water pressure and post-cyclic settlement on soft clay induced by uni-directional and multi-directional cyclic shears as a function of strain path parameters. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 49:75–88Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Matsui T, Ohara H, Ito T (1980) Cyclic stress–strain history and shear characteristics of clay. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 106(GT10):1101–1120Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mitchell RJ (1970) On the yielding and mechanical strength of Leda clays. Can Geotech J 7:297–312Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mitchell RJ, Wong PKK (1973) The generalized failure of an Ottawa Valley Champlain clay. Can Geotech J 10:607–616Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mortezaie AR, Vucetic M (2013) Effect of frequency and vertical stress on cyclic degradation and pore water pressure in clay in the NGI simple shear device. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(10):1727–1737Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nagase H, Shimizu K, Hiro-oka A, Tanoue Y, Saitoh Y (2006) Earthquake-induced residual deformation of Ariake clay deposits with leaching. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 26(2–4):209–220Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ng CWW, Liu GB, Li Q (2013) Investigation of the long-term tunnel settlement mechanisms of the first metro line in Shanghai. Can Geotech J 50(6):674–684Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Niemunis A, Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2005) A high-cycle accumulation model for sand. Comput Geotech 32(4):245–263zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ohara S, Matsuda H (1988) Study on the settlement of saturated clay layer induced by cyclic shear. Soils Found 28(3):103–113Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Okur DV, Ansal A (2007) Stiffness degradation of natural fine grained soils during cyclic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(9):843–854Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    O’Reilly MP, Brown SF, Overy RF (1989) Viscous effects observed in tests on an anisotropically normally consolidated silty clay. Géotechnique 39(1):153–158Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parry RHG (1960) Triaxial compression and extension tests on remoulded saturated clay. Géotechnique 10:166–180Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Patiño H, Soriano A, González J (2013) Failure of a soft cohesive soil subjected to combined static and cyclic loading. Soils Found 53(6):910–922Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pennington DS, Nash DFT, Lings ML (1997) Anisotropy of \(G_0\) shear stiffness in Gault clay. Géotechnique 47(3):391–398Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Penumadu D, Skandarajah A, Chameau J-L (1998) Strain rate effects in pressuremeter testing using a cuboidal shear device: experiments and modeling. Can Geotech J 35:27–42Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Procter DC, Khaffaf J (1984) Cyclic triaxial tests on remolded clays. J Geotech Eng ASCE 110(10):1431–1445Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Puri VK (1984) Liquefaction behavior and dynamic properties of loessial (silty) soils. Ph.D. thesis, University of Missouri-RolloGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rampello S, Callisto L (1998) A study on the subsoil of the Tower of Pisa based on results from standard and high-quality samples. Can Geotech J 35(6):1074–1092Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ratananikom W, Likitlersuang S, Yimsiri S (2012) An investigation of anisotropic elastic parameters of Bangkok clay from vertical and horizontal cut specimens. Geomech Geoeng Int J 8(1):15–27Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Romero S (1995) The behavior of silt as clay content is increased. Master’s thesis, University of California, Davis, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Roscoe KH, Schofield AN, Wroth CP (1958) On the yielding of soils. Géotechnique 8(1):22–53Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Shibuya S, Mitachi T, Fukuda F, Degoshi T (1995) Strain rate effects on shear modulus and damping of normally consolidated clay. Geotech Test J ASTM 18(3):365–375Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Saada A, Bianchini G, Liang L (1994) Cracks, bifurcation and shear band propagation in saturated clays. Géotechnique 44(1):35–64Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sakai A, Samang L, Miura N (2003) Partially-drained cyclic behavior and its application to the settlement of a low embankment road on silty-clay. Soils Found 43(1):33–46Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Santagata M, Germaine JT, Ladd CC (2007) Small-strain nonlinearity of normally consolidated clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 133(1):72–82Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Seed HB, Chan CK (1966) Clay strength under earthquake loading conditions. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 92(SM2):53–78Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Seng S, Tanaka H (2012) Properties of very soft clays: a study of thixotropic hardening and behavior under low consolidation pressure. Soils Found 52(2):335–345Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sheahan TC, Ladd CC, Germaine JT (1996) Rate dependent undrained shear behavior of saturated clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 122(2):99–108Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shibuya S, Mitachi T (1994) Small strain modulus of clay sedimentation in a state of normal consolidation. Soils Found 34(4):67–77Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shogaki T, Kumagai N (2008) A slope stability analysis considering undrained strength anisotropy of natural clay deposits. Soils Found 48(6):805–819Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sivakumar V, Doran IG, Graham J (2002) Particle orientation and its influence on the mechanical behavior of isotropically consolidated reconstituted clay. Eng Geol 66:197–209Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sorensen KK, Baudet BA, Simpson B (2007) Influence of structure on the time-dependent behaviour of a stiff sedimentary clay. Géotechnique 57(1):113–124Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stokoe KH, Darendeli MB, Andrus RD, Brown LT (1999) Dynamic soil properties: laboratory, field and correlation studies. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, vol 3. A.A. Balkema, pp 811–845Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Su D, Wu WL, Du ZY, Yan WM (2014) Cyclic degradation of a multidirectionally laterally loaded rigid single pile model in compacted clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(5):06014002-1–06014002-7Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tang Y-Q, Zhou J, Liu S, Yang P, Wang J-X (2011) Test on cyclic creep behavior of mucky clay in Shanghai under step cyclic loading. EES 63:321–327Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Teachavorasinskun S, Thongchim P, Lukkunaprasit P (2002) Shear modulus and damping of soft Bangkog clays. Can Geothech J 39(5):1201–1208Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vaid YP, Campanella RG (1977) Time dependent behavior of undisturbed clay. J Geotech Eng ASCE 103(7):693–709Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vaid YP, Robertson PK, Campanella RG (1979) Strain rate behaviour of the Saint-Jean-Vianney clay. Can Geotech J 16(1):34–42Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Van Eekelen HAM, Potts DM (1978) The behavior of Drammen clay under cyclic loading. Géotechnique 28(2):173–196Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vardanega PJ, Bolton MD (2013) Stiffness of clays and silts: normalizing shear modulus and shear strain. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 139(9):1575–1589Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Vardanega PJ, Bolton MD (2014) Stiffness of clays and silts: modeling considerations. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(6):06014004-1–06014004-7Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Viggiani G, Atkinson JH (1995) Stiffness of fine-grained soil at very small strains. Géotechnique 45(2):249–265Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Voznesensky EA, Nordal S (1999) Dynamic instability of clays: an energy approach. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 18:125–133Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Vucetic M (1988) Normalized behavior of offshore clay under uniform cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 25:33–41Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vucetic M (1994) Cyclic threshold shear strains in soils. J Geotech Eng ASCE 120(12):2208–2228Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wichtmann T Homepage
  126. 126.
    Wichtmann T, Andersen KH, Sjursen MA, Berre T (2013) Cyclic behaviour of high-quality undisturbed block samples of Onsøy clay. Can Geotech J 50(4):400–412Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2013) On the elastic stiffness in a high-cycle accumulation model—continued investigations. Can Geotech J 50(12):1260–1272Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2014) Flow rule in a high-cycle accumulation model backed by cyclic test data of 22 sands. Acta Geotechnica 9(4):695–709Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wichtmann T, Rondón HA, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T, Lizcano A (2010) Prediction of permanent deformations in pavements using a high-cycle accumulation model. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 136(5):728–740Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2016) An experimental data base for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading. Part I: tests with monotonic loading and stress cycles. Acta Geotechnica 11(4):739–761Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2016) An experimental data base for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading. Part II: tests with strain cycles and combined cyclic and monotonic loading. Acta Geotechnica 11(4):763–774Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Xiao J, Juang CH, Wei K, Xu S (2014) Effects of principal stress rotation on the cumulative deformation of normally consolidated soft clay under subway traffic loading. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 140(4):04013046-1–04013046-9Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yasuhara K, Hirao K, Hyde A (1992) Effects of cyclic loading on undrained strength and compressibility of clay. Soils Found 32(1):100–116Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yasuhara K, Yamanouchi T, Hirao K (1982) Cyclic strength and deformation of normally consolidated clay. Soils Found 22(3):77–91Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yimsiri S, Soga K (2011) Cross-anisotropic elastic parameters of two natural stiff clays. Géotechnique 61(9):809–814Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zergoun M, Vaid YP (1994) Effective stress response of clay to undrained cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 31:714–727Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zhou J, Gong X (2001) Strain degradation of saturated clay under cyclic loading. Can Geotech J 38:208–212Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zimmie TF, Lien CY (1986) Response of clay subjected to combined cyclic and initial static shear stress. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Canadian conference on marine geotechnical engineering vol 2, pp 655–675Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics (IBF)Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)KarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations