# Monotonic and cyclic tests on kaolin: a database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for cohesive soils with focus to cyclic loading

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## Abstract

A database with about 60 undrained monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests on kaolin is presented. In the monotonic tests, the influences of consolidation pressure, overconsolidation ratio, displacement rate and sample cutting direction have been studied. In the cyclic tests, the stress amplitude, the initial stress ratio and the control (stress vs. strain cycles) have been additionally varied. Isotropic consolidation leads to a failure due to large strain amplitudes with eight-shaped effective stress paths in the final phase of the cyclic tests, while a failure due to an excessive accumulation of axial strain and lens-shaped effective stress paths was observed in the case of anisotropic consolidation with \(q^{\text{ ampl }}< |q^{\text{ av }}|\). The rate of pore pressure accumulation grew with increasing amplitude and void ratio (i.e. decreasing consolidation pressure and overconsolidation ratio). The “cyclic flow rule” well known for sand has been confirmed also for kaolin: With increasing value of the average stress ratio \(|\eta ^{\text{ av }}| = |q^{\text{ av }}|/p^{\text{ av }}, \) the accumulation of deviatoric strain becomes predominant over the accumulation of pore water pressure. The tests on the samples cut out either horizontally or vertically revealed a significant effect of anisotropy. In the cyclic tests, the two kinds of samples exhibited an opposite inclination of the effective stress path. Furthermore, the horizontal samples showed a higher stiffness and could sustain a much larger number of cycles to failure. All data of the present study are available from the homepage of the first author. They may serve for the examination, calibration or improvement in constitutive models dedicated to cohesive soils under cyclic loading, or for the development of new models.

## Keywords

Cyclic loading Database kaolin Monotonic loading Triaxial tests Undrained conditions## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This research was funded by German Research Council (DFG) in the framework of the project “Behaviour of cohesive soils under high-cyclic loading: Experimental studies and constitutive description” (WI 3180/2-1). The financial support by DFG is gratefully acknowledged herewith. The tests have been performed by the technicians H. Borowski and F. Schwab in the IBF soil mechanics laboratory.

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