Acta Geotechnica

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 763–774 | Cite as

An experimental database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading: part II—tests with strain cycles and combined loading

  • Torsten WichtmannEmail author
  • Theodoros Triantafyllidis
Research Paper


For numerical studies of geotechnical structures under earthquake loading, aiming to examine a possible failure due to liquefaction, using a sophisticated constitutive model for the soil is indispensable. Such model must adequately describe the material response to a cyclic loading under constant volume (undrained) conditions, amongst others the relaxation of effective stress (pore pressure accumulation) or the effective stress loops repeatedly passed through after a sufficiently large number of cycles (cyclic mobility, stress attractors). The soil behaviour under undrained cyclic loading is manifold, depending on the initial conditions (e.g. density, fabric, effective mean pressure, stress ratio) and the load characteristics (e.g. amplitude of the cycles, application of stress or strain cycles). In order to develop, calibrate and verify a constitutive model with focus to undrained cyclic loading, the data from high-quality laboratory tests comprising a variety of initial conditions and load characteristics are necessary. It is the purpose of these two companion papers to provide such database collected for a fine sand. Part II concentrates on the undrained triaxial tests with strain cycles, where a large range of strain amplitudes has been studied. Furthermore, oedometric and isotropic compression tests as well as drained triaxial tests with un- and reloading cycles are discussed. A combined monotonic and cyclic loading has been also studied in undrained triaxial tests. All test data presented herein will be available from the homepage of the first author. As an example of the examination of an existing constitutive model, the experimental data are compared to element test simulations using hypoplasticity with intergranular strain.


Combined monotonic and cyclic loading Cyclic triaxial tests Database Fine sand Isotropic compression tests Oedometric compression tests Strain cycles Un- and reloading cycles 



Parts of the presented study have been performed within the framework of the project "Geotechnical robustness and self-healing of foundations of offshore wind power plants” funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU, project No. 0327618). Other parts were conducted within the framework of the project "Improvement of an accumulation model for high-cyclic loading" funded by German Research Council (DFG, project No. TR218/18-1 / WI3180/3-1). The authors are grateful to BMU and DFG for the financial support. All tests have been performed by the technicians H. Borowski, P. Gölz and N. Demiral in the IBF soil mechanics laboratory.


  1. 1.
    Dobry R, Ladd RS, Yokel FY, Chung RM, Powell D (1982) Prediction of pore pressure buildup and liquefaction of sands during earthquakes by the cyclic strain method. Technical Report 138, U.S. Department of Commerce, National bureau of standards, NBS Building science seriesGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jafarian Y, Towhata I, Baziar MH, Noorzad A, Bahmanpour A (2012) Strain energy based evaluation of liquefaction and residual pore water pressure in sands using cyclic torsional shear experiments. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 35:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kazama M, Yamaguchi A, Yanagisawa E (2000) Liquefaction resistance from a ductility viewpoint. Soils Found 40(6):47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Niemunis A, Herle I (1997) Hypoplastic model for cohesionless soils with elastic strain range. Mech Cohes-Frict Mater 2:279–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Niemunis A, Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2005) A high-cycle accumulation model for sand. Comput Geotech 32(4):245–263CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sassa K, Wang G, Fukuoka H, Vankov DA (2005) Shear-displacement-amplitude dependent pore-pressure generation in undrained cyclic loading ring shear tests—an energy approach. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 131(6):750–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    von Wolffersdorff P-A (1996) A hypoplastic relation for granular materials with a predefined limit state surface. Mech Cohes-Frict Mater 1:251–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vucetic M (1994) Cyclic threshold shear strains in soils. J Geotech Eng ASCE 120(12):2208–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Westermann K, Zachert H, Wichtmann T (2014) Vergleich von Ansätzen zur Prognose der Langzeitverformungen von OWEA-Monopilegründungen in Sand. Teil 1: Grundlagen der Ansätze und Parameterkalibration. Bautechnik 91(5):309–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wichtmann T (2015) Homepage
  11. 11.
    Wichtmann T, Niemunis A, Triantafyllidis T (2013) On the “elastic stiffness” in a high-cycle accumulation model—continued investigations. Can Geotech J 50(12):1260–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wichtmann T, Triantafyllidis T (2015) An experimental data base for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading. Part I: tests with monotonic loading and stress cycles. Acta Geotech. doi: 10.1007/s11440-015-0402-z Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu W (1992) Hypoplastizität als mathematisches Modell zum mechanischen Verhalten granularer Stoffe. Veröffentlichungen des Institutes für Boden- und Felsmechanik der Universität Fridericiana in Karlsruhe, Heft Nr. 129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics (IBF)Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)KarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations