Acta Geotechnica

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 739–761 | Cite as

An experimental database for the development, calibration and verification of constitutive models for sand with focus to cyclic loading: part I—tests with monotonic loading and stress cycles

  • Torsten WichtmannEmail author
  • Theodoros Triantafyllidis
Research Paper


For numerical studies of geotechnical structures under earthquake loading, aiming to examine a possible failure due to liquefaction, using a sophisticated constitutive model for the soil is indispensable. Such a model must adequately describe the material response to a cyclic loading under constant volume (undrained) conditions, amongst others the relaxation of effective stress (pore pressure accumulation) or the effective stress loops repeatedly passed through after a sufficiently large number of cycles (cyclic mobility, stress attractors). The soil behaviour under undrained cyclic loading is manifold, depending on the initial conditions (e.g. density, fabric, effective mean pressure, stress ratio) and the load characteristics (e.g. amplitude of the cycles, application of stress or strain cycles). In order to develop, calibrate and verify a constitutive model with focus to undrained cyclic loading, the data from high-quality laboratory tests comprising a variety of initial conditions and load characteristics are necessary. The purpose of these two companion papers was to provide such database collected for a fine sand. The database consists of numerous undrained cyclic triaxial tests with stress or strain cycles applied to samples consolidated isotropically or anisotropically. Monotonic triaxial tests with drained or undrained conditions have also been performed. Furthermore, drained triaxial, oedometric or isotropic compression tests with several un- and reloading cycles are presented. Part I concentrates on the triaxial tests with monotonic loading or stress cycles. All test data presented herein will be available from the homepage of the first author. As an example of the examination of an existing constitutive model, the experimental data are compared to element test simulations using hypoplasticity with intergranular strain.


Cyclic triaxial tests Database Fine sand Monotonic triaxial tests Stress cycles 



Parts of the presented study have been performed within the framework of the project “Geotechnical robustness and self-healing of foundations of offshore wind power plants” funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Savety (BMU, project No. 0327618). Other parts were conducted within the framework of the project “Improvement of an accumulation model for high-cyclic loading” funded by German Research Council (DFG, Project No. TR218/18-1 / WI3180/3-1). The authors are grateful to BMU and DFG for the financial support. All tests have been performed by the technicians H. Borowski, P. Gölz and N. Demiral in the IBF soil mechanics laboratory.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics (IBF)Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)KarlsruheGermany

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