Heat exchanger piles utilize the constant temperature and the thermal storage capacity of the ground for heating and cooling of buildings. Sustainable use of the ground as a renewable energy source depends on the seasonal energy load balance. One of the critical factors for the sustainable operation of heat exchanger piles is that a constant temperature of the ground is maintained over seasons. The entire soil mass can be gradually heated up or cooled down if the energy demand is unbalanced. This paper presents the findings on the long-term performance of heat exchanger piles and their efficiency for areas where the demand is nonsymmetrical. Analyses have been performed to investigate the long-term performance of several pile arrangements ranging from single pile to numerous pile groups with a selection of 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4 and 5 × 5 rectangular grids. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the single pile was also investigated. The analyses simulated 30 years of pile operation and resulted in significant findings for long-term performance of heat exchanger piles under different climatic conditions.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdelaziz SL (2013) Behavior of energy piles: deep foundations used as heat exchangers. PhD thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Abdelaziz SL, Olgun CG, Martin JR (2014) Equivalent energy wave for long-term analysis of ground coupled heat exchangers. Geothermics. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2014.04.006
Al-Khoury R, Bonnier PG, Brinkgreve RBJ (2005) Efficient finite element formulation for geothermal heating systems, part I: steady state. Int J Numer Methods Eng 63:988–1013
Al-Khoury R, Brinkgreve RBJ (2006) Efficient finite element formulation for geothermal heating systems, part II: transient. Int J Numer Methods Eng 67:725–745
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) (2009) ASHRAE handbook of fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. Atlanta, GA
Bourne-Webb PJ, Amatya B, Soga K, Amis T, Davidson C, Payne P (2009) Energy pile test at Lambeth College, London: geotechnical and thermodynamic aspects of pile response to heat cycles. Géotechnique 59:237–248
Brandl H (2006) Energy foundations and other thermoactive ground structures. Géotechnique 56(2):81–122
Churchill SW (1977) Friction factor equations spans all fluid-flow regimes. Chem Eng 84(24):91–92
COMSOL (2013) COMSOL Multiphysics™ version 4.3b: user’s guide and reference manual. COMSOL, Burlington
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) (2010) Drilled shafts: construction procedures and LRFD design methods. FHWA-NHI-10-016, Washington, DC
Farouki OT (1981) Thermal properties of soils. United States Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, 137 pp
Gnielinski V (1976) New equations for heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. Int J Chem Eng 16(2):359–368
Hamada Y, Nakamura M, Ochifuji K, Nagano K, Yokoyama S (2001) Field performance of a Japanese low energy home relying on renewable energy. Energy Build 33(8):805–814
He M (2012) Numerical modelling of geothermal borehole heat exchanger systems. PhD thesis, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, 183 pp
Kusuda T, Achenbach PR (1965) Earth temperature and thermal diffusivity at selected stations in United States. Am Soc Heat Refrig Air-Cond Eng (ASHRAE) Trans 71(1):61–75
Laloui L, Nuth M, Vulliet L (2006) Experimental and numerical investigations of the behaviour of a heat exchanger pile. IJNAMG 30:763–781
Lamarche L, Stanislaw K, Beauchamp B (2010) A review of methods to evaluate borehole thermal resistances in geothermal heat-pump systems. Geothermics 39:187–200
Lazzari S, Priarone A, Zanchini E (2010) Long-term performance of BHE (borehole heat exchanger) fields with negligible groundwater movement. Energy 35(12):4966–4974
Marcotte D, Pasquier P (2008) On the estimation of thermal resistance in borehole thermal conductivity test. Renew Energy 33:2407–2415
McCartney JS, Rosenberg JE (2011) Impact of heat exchange on side shear in thermo-active foundations. In: Han J, Alzamora DE (eds) Proceedings of geo-frontiers 2011: advances in geotechnical engineering. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, No. 211, Dallas, TX. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 488–498
Ozudogru TY, Olgun CG, Senol A (2014) 3D numerical modeling of vertical geothermal heat exchangers. Geothermics 51:312–324
Salomone LA, James IM, Bose JE (1989) Soil and rock classification for the design of ground-coupled heat pump systems: field manual. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, Stillwater, 55 pp
Salciarini D, Ronchi F, Cattoni E, Tamagnini C (2013) Some remarks on the thermomechanical effects induced by energy piles operation in a small piled raft. Int J Geomech. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000375
Signorelli S, Bassetti S, Pahud D, Kohl T (2007) Numerical evaluation of thermal response tests. Geothermics 36:141–166
Wang B, Bouazza A, Haberfield C (2011) Preliminary observations from laboratory scale model geothermal pile subjected to thermo-mechanical loading. In: Dallas, TX Han J, Alzamora DE (eds) Proceedings of geo-frontiers 2011: advances in geotechnical engineering. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, No. 211. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 430–439
WaterFurnace (WFI) (2013) Specification catalog 5 series 500A11. Retrieved 15 Apr 2014, from http://www.waterfurnace.com/literature/5series/SC2500AN.pdf
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CMMI-0928807 and CMMI-1100752. The second author is funded as a visiting scholar by the Turkish Council on Higher Education and Istanbul Technical University. All these supports are greatly appreciated. Any opinions, conclusions or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these agencies.
About this article
Cite this article
Olgun, C.G., Ozudogru, T.Y., Abdelaziz, S.L. et al. Long-term performance of heat exchanger piles. Acta Geotech. 10, 553–569 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-014-0334-z
- Energy demand
- Heat exchanger pile
- Long-term performance
- Numerical modeling
- Thermo-mechanical behavior