Skip to main content

Experimental investigations on ultimate bearing capacity of peat stabilized by a group of soil–cement column: a comparative study


The aim of this paper was to determine the ultimate vertical bearing capacity of rectangular rigid footings resting on homogeneous peat stabilized by a group of cement deep mixing (CDM) columns. For this purpose, a series of physical modeling tests involving end-bearing and floating CDM columns were performed. Three length/depth ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 and three area improvement ratios of 13.1, 19.6, and 26.2 % were considered. Bearing capacity of the footings was studied using different analytical procedures. The results indicated that compared to unimproved peat, the average ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) improvement of floating and end-bearing CDM columns were 60 and 223 %, respectively. The current study found that simple Brom’s method predicted the UBC of the peat stabilized with floating CDM columns with reasonable accuracy, but underestimated the UBC by up to 25 % in the case of end-bearing CDM columns. Published laboratory experiences of stabilizing soft soils using soil–cement columns were also collated in this paper.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12



Cement deep mixing


Ultimate bearing capacity


Ordinary Portland cement

B :

Footing width

l :

Column length

h :

Height of the box

c uc :

Undrained shear strength of the column

c us :

Undrained shear strength of the soil

q uc :

Unconfined compression of the column

R :

UBC reduction factor

α :

Area improvement ratio

c c :

Compression index

c r :

Recompression index

λ :

Constant coefficient (5.5)

q min :

Lower bound of UBC

q max :

Upper bound of UBC


  1. ASTM D 2974 (2000) Standard test method for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils. Book of ASTM standards. ASTM, Philadelphia

  2. Bergado DT, Anderson LR, Miura N, Balasubramaniam AS (1994) Lime/cement deep mixing method. Improvement techniques of soft ground in subsiding and lowland environments. A.A. Balkelma, Rotterdam, pp 99–130

  3. Black JA, Sivakumar V, Madhav MR, McCabe B (2006) An improved experimental test setup to study the performance of granular columns. Geotech Test J 29(3):193–199

    Google Scholar 

  4. Black JA, Sivakumar V, Madhav MR, Hamill GA (2007) Reinforced stone columns in weak deposits-laboratory model study. J Geotech Geoenviron 133(9):1154–1161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Boussida M, Porbaha A (2004) Ultimate bearing capacity of soft clays reinforced by a group of columns-application to a deep mixing technique. Soils Found 44(3):91–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Boussida M, Porbaha A (2004b) Bearing capacity of foundations resting on soft ground improved by soil cement columns. In: International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering (ICGE 2004), pp 173–180

  7. Boussida M, Jelali B, Porbaha A (2009) Limit analysis of rigid foundations on floating columns. Int J Numer Anal Methods 9(3):89–101

    Google Scholar 

  8. British Standard Institution BS (1990) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. British Standard Institution, London

    Google Scholar 

  9. Broms BB (1964) Lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 90(2):27–63

    Google Scholar 

  10. Broms BB (1982) Lime columns in theory and practice. In: Proceedings of International Conference of Soil Mechanics, Mexico, pp 149–165

  11. Broms BB (2000) Lime and lime/columns. Summary and visions. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, vol 1, pp 43–93

  12. Broms BB (2001) Discussion—centrifuge model tests on failure envelope of column type deep mixing method improved ground. Soils Found 41(4):103–107

    Google Scholar 

  13. Broms BB (2002) Stabilization of soil with lime columns. In: Foundation engineering handbook. Kluwer Academic Publisher

  14. Broms BB, Boman P (1979) Stabilisation of soil with lime columns. Ground Eng 12(4):23–32

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bruce D (2001) An introduction to the deep mixing methods as used in geotechnical applications, vol III. The verification and properties of treated ground. Report No. FHWA-RD-99-167, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

  16. Bruce DA, Bruce ME (2001) Practitioner’s guide to the deep mixing method. Ground Improv 5(3):95–100

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bruce DA (2002) An introduction to deep mixing methods as used in geotechnical applications, vol III. The verification and properties of treated ground FHWA-RD:99-167

  18. Coastal Development Institute of Technology (2002) The deep mixing method-principle, design and construction. A.A. Balkelma, Netherland

    Google Scholar 

  19. EuroSoilStab (2002) Development of design and construction methods to stabilize soft organic soils: design guide soft soil stabilization, industrial and materials technologies programme (Brite- EuRam III), European Commission, CT97-0351, Project No. BE 96-3177, pp 15–60

  20. Han J, Zhou H, Tand Ye F (2002) State‐of‐practice review of deep soil mixing techniques in China. Transportation Research Record No. 1808, Soil Mechanics, pp 49–57

  21. Hebib S, Farrell ER (2003) Some experiences on the stabilization of Irish peats. Can Geotech J 40(1):107–120. doi:10.1139/T02-091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Horpibulsuk S, Miura N, Koga H, Nagaraj TS (2004) Analysis of strength development in deep mixing: a field study. Ground Improv 8(2):59–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Huat BBK, Kazemian S, Prasad A, Barghchi M (2011) A study of the compressibility behavior of peat stabilized by DMM: model and FE analysis. Int J Phys Sci 6(1):196–204

    Google Scholar 

  24. ICE Manual of Geotechnical Engineering (2012) Institution of Civil Engineers. Chapter 35 Organics/peat soils ICE manual

  25. Janz M, Johansson SE (2001) The function of different types of binder in content with deep stabilization Swedish Deep Stabilization Research Centre, Report No 9, Linköping

  26. Japanese Geotechnical Society Standard (2000) Practice for making and curing stabilized soil specimens without compaction. vol 5, Chapter 7, (JGS 0821-2000)

  27. Karstunen M (1999) Alternative ways of modelling embankments on deep‐stabilized soil. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dry Mix Methods for Deep Soil Stabilization, pp 221–228

  28. Yin J-H, Fang Z (2010) Physical modelling of a footing on soft soil ground with deep cement mixed soil columns under vertical loading. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 28:173–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kazemian S, Huat B, Prasad A, Barghchi M (2011) Study of peat media on stabilization of peat by traditional binder. IJPS 6(3):476–481

    Google Scholar 

  30. Kitazume MT, Miyajima I, Karastanev K (1996) Bearing capacity of improved ground with column type DMM. In: Yonekura T, Shibazaki B (eds) Grouting and deep mixing, vol 1, pp 503–508

  31. Kitazume M, Yamamoto M (1998) Stability of group column type DMM ground. Report of Port and Harbour Institute, vol 37(2), pp 3–28

  32. Kitazume M, Yamamoto M, Udaka Y (1999) Vertical bearing capacity of column type DMM ground with low improvement ratios. In: Bredenberg H, Broms BB (eds) Dry mixing methods for deep soil stabilization, pp 245–250

  33. Kitazume M, Okano K, Miyajima S (2000) Centrifuge model tests on failure envelope of column type deep mixing method improved ground. Soils Found 40(4):43–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Krenn H, Karstunen M (2009) Numerical modelling of deep mixed columns below embankment constructed on soft soil. Geotechnics of soft soils focus on ground improvement, pp 159–164

  35. Mesri G, Ajlouni M (2007) Engineering properties of fibrous peats. J Geotech Geoenviron 133(7):850–866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Moore PD (1989) The ecology of peat-forming processes. Int J Coal Geol 12(1–4):89–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Okumura T (1996) Deep mixing method of Japan. Grouting and deep mixing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 879–887

  38. Omine K, Ochiai H, Bolton MD (1999). Homogenization method for numerical analysis of improved ground with cement‐treated soil columns. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dry Dry Mix Methods for Deep Soil Stabilization, pp 161–168

  39. Porbaha A (1998) State of the art in deep mixing technology: part I. Basic concepts and overview. Ground Improv 2(2):81–92

    Google Scholar 

  40. Prandtl L (1921) Uber Die Eindringungsfestigkeit Plastischer Baustoffe Und Die Festigkeit Von Schneiden. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 1(1):15–20

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  41. Puppala A, Madhyannapu R, Nazarian S,Yuan D, Hoyos L (2007) Deep soil mixing technology for mitigation of pavement roughness. Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology

  42. Rashid A (2011) Behavior of weak soils reinforced with soil columns formed by deep mixing method. In: Phd Thesis. University of Sheffield

  43. Rathmayer H (1996) Deep mixing methods for soft soil improvement in the Nordic Countries. In: Proceedings the 2nd International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems, Grouting and Deep Mixing, 14–17 May, Tokyo, 2, pp 869–877

  44. Stanek W, Worley IA (1983) A terminology of virgin peat and peat lands. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Peat Utilization, Bemidji State University, Bemidji, Minn, pp 75–104

  45. Tan TS, Goh TL, Yong KY (2002) Properties of Singapore marine clays improved by cement mixing. Geotech Test J 25(4):422–433

    Google Scholar 

  46. Terashi M, Tanaka H (1981a) Ground improvement by in situ deep mixing method. In: Proceedings of 10th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, pp 777–780

  47. Terashi M, Tanaka H (1981b) Settlement analysis for deep mixing method. In: Proceedings of 10th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, pp 955–960

  48. Terashi M, Tanaka H (1983) Bearing capacity and consolidation of the improved ground by a group of treated soil columns. Report of the Port and Harbour Research Institute, vol 22, No. 2, pp 214–266

  49. Terashi M (2005) Keynote lecture: design of deep mixing in infrastructure applications. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Deep Mixing. Best Practice and Recent Advance, pp 25–45

  50. Terzagi K (1943) Theoretical soil mechanics. Wiley, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  51. Topolnicki M (2004) In situ soil mixing. In: Moseley MP, Kirsch K (eds) Ground improvement. Spon Press, New York, pp 331–428

    Google Scholar 

  52. Vesic AS (1973) Analysis of ultimate load of shallow foundations. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 99(SM1):45–73

    Google Scholar 

  53. Von Post L (1922) SGU peat inventory and some preliminary results, pp 1–27

  54. YTL product data sheet (2008) Chemical compositions of the cement. YTL Cement Marketing Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ali Dehghanbanadaki.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dehghanbanadaki, A., Ahmad, K. & Ali, N. Experimental investigations on ultimate bearing capacity of peat stabilized by a group of soil–cement column: a comparative study. Acta Geotech. 11, 295–307 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Bearing capacity
  • Cement column
  • Failure patterns
  • Peat soils
  • Stabilization