Suitability assessment of deep groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes in Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, north China


Groundwater has been a major natural resource for human consumption in north China. It is necessary to appreciate the suitability of deep groundwater for drinking, agricultural irrigation, and industrial uses in this region. To this end, a total of 47 groundwater samples were collected from the study area; by comparing the concentrations of different hydrochemical variables with quality standard values, the variable fuzzy set (VFS) was applied to calculate the groundwater quality index (GQI) for various purposes, respectively. Afterward GQI spatial distribution maps were constructed using a geographic information system (GIS) tool to delineate spatial variations of groundwater quality. In this case study, the GQI spatial distribution maps reveal that the areas covered by “Maximum Permissible” groundwater for varying purposes (drinking, irrigation, and industrial) is 1377.2; 2354.7; and 3854.8 km2, respectively. The groundwater in the eastern part of the study area is suitable for drinking, with the southwestern region as the irrigation water source; the entire study area is acceptable for use in industrial, except the western part of Jiaozuo City. Therefore, the GQI spatial distribution maps can provide useful information for non-technical decision makers for better sustainable groundwater resources management.


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Correspondence to Rong Ma.

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Shi, J., Ma, R., Liu, J. et al. Suitability assessment of deep groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes in Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, north China. Chin. Sci. Bull. 58, 3098–3110 (2013).

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  • drinking water
  • quality
  • irrigation
  • spatial distribution map
  • variable fuzzy set