A palynological and palaeoclimatological record from the southern Philippines since the Last Glacial Maximum
- 780 Downloads
A palynological analysis of a marine sediment core in the southern Philippines, provides a detailed regional vegetation and climate history for the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Chronology was determined by a detailed oxygen isotope record. A higher representation of pollen from tropical upper montane rainforest during the LGM indicate that this forest type moved down along elevation, probabaly due to the lowered temperature. During the last deglaciation and the early Holocene, mangroves were more expanded and tropical mid and upper montane rainforests were restricted, suggesting a rising sea-level and temperature increase. Herbaceous pollen and pteridophyte spore records indicate a much drier condition during the LGM than the Holocene. Mangrove development is controlled by conditions at the river mouth influenced by river discharge. Pteridophyte spores are abundant in wet conditions and are mainly transported by rivers. During the mid-Holocene, the reduction in mangrove pollen and pteridophyte spore appears to be a result of climate change: mainly decrease in river discharge. This may have been affected by the decreasing intensity of the Southeast Asian Monsoon, and the increasing frequency and intensity of warm ENSO events, El Niño, in this region.
KeywordsLast Glacial Maximum tropical rainforests palynological analyses sea-level change river discharge
- 1.Bush M B, Flenley J R. Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd, 2007Google Scholar
- 3.Peterson J A, Hope G S, Prentice M, et al. Mountain environments in New Guinea and the late Glacial Maximum warm seas/cold mountains enigma in the West Pacific Warm Pool region. In: Kershaw A P, Tapper N J, David B, et al., eds. Bridging Wallace’s Line. Adv Geo-Ecol, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, 2002, 34: 173–187Google Scholar
- 6.Maxwell A L, Liu K-B. Late Quaternary pollen and associated records from the monsoonal areas of continental South and SE Asia. In: Kershaw A P, Tapper N J, David B, et al., eds. Bridging Wallace’s Line. Adv GeoEcol, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, 2002, 34: 189–228Google Scholar
- 9.Li X, Sun X. Palynological records since Last Glacial Maximum from a deep sea core in southern South China Sea (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 1999, 6: 526–535Google Scholar
- 13.Whitmore T C. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975. 121–163Google Scholar
- 21.Grindrod J, Moss P, van der Kaars S. Late Quaternary mangrove pollen records from the continental shelf and ocean cores in the north Australian-Indonesian region. In: Kershaw A P, Tapper N J, David B, et al., eds. Bridging Wallace’s Line. Adv GeoEcol, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, 2002, 34: 119–146Google Scholar
- 34.Griffiths M L, Drysdale R N, Gagan M K, et al. Increasing Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall linked to early Holocene sea-level rise. Nature, 2009, 605: 637–639Google Scholar
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.