Skip to main content

Observations of the first meteorological rocket of the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project


On June 3, 2010, the first meteorological rocket of the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project was successfully launched at the Hainan rocket launch site (19.5°N), China. This paper analyzes the vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and wind recorded by the rocket and its supportive balloons, and investigates wind shear, gravity waves and atmospheric stability. In addition, we compare the vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and wind with SABER/TIMED temperature measurements and the modeling results of MSIS00 and HWM07.


  1. Ma R P. Wind and wind shear observed by ZN-1 Rocket at Hainan. Chin J Space Sci, 1997, 17: 70–74

    Google Scholar 

  2. Reed R J. Zonal wind behavior in the equatorial stratosphere and lower mesosphere. J Geophys Res, 1966, 71: 4223–4233

    Google Scholar 

  3. Sasi M N, Krishna Murthy B V, Geetha R, et al. A study of equatorial wave characteristics using rockets, balloons, lidar and radar. Adv Space Res, 2003, 32: 813–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Antonita T M, Geetha R, Karanam K K, et al. A quantitative study on the role of gravity waves in driving the tropical Stratospheric Semiannual Oscillation. J Geophys Res, 2007, 112: doi: 10.1029/2006JD008250

  5. Wüst S, Bittner M. Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys, 2008, 70: 742–755

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Wu Y F, Widdel H U. Saturated gravity wave spectrum in the polar lower thermosphere observed by foil chaff during campaign “Sosium 88”. J Atmos Sci, 1992, 49: 1781–1789

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Schöch A, Baumgarten G, Fritts D C, et al. Gravity waves in the troposphere and stratosphere during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program. Geophys Res Lett, 2004, 31, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019837

  8. Xu J, She C Y, Yuan W, et al. Comparison between the temperature measurements by TIMED/SABER and lidar in the midlatitude. J Geophys Res, 2006, 111: doi: 10.1029/2005JA011439

  9. Xu J, Smith A K, Liu H L, et al. Seasonal and quasi-biennial variations in the migrating diurnal tide observed by Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED). J Geophys Res, 2009, 114, doi: 10.1029/2008JD011298

  10. García-Comas M, López-Puertas M, Marshall B T, et al. Errors in Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) kinetic temperature caused by non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model parameters. J Geophys Res, 2008, 113, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010105

  11. Huang F T, Mayr H G, Reber C A, et al. Stratospheric and mesospheric temperature variations for the quasi-biennial and semiannual (QBO and SAO) oscillations based on measurements from SABER (TIMED) and MLS (UARS). Ann Geophys, 2006, 24: 2131–2149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Remsberg E E, Marshall B T, Garcia-Comas M, et al. Assessment of the quality of the Version 1.07 temperature-versus-pressure profiles of the middle atmosphere from TIMED/SABER. J Geophys Res, 2008, 113, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010013

  13. Zhu X, Yee J H, Talaat E R, et al. Diagnostic analysis of tidal winds and the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from TIMED/SABER temperatures. J Atmos Sci, 2008, 65: 3840–3859

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Picone J M, Hedin A E, Drob D P, et al. NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: Statistical comparisons and scientific issues. J Geophys Res, 2002, 107, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009430

  15. Drob D P, Emmert J T, Crowley G, et al. An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07. J Geophys Res, 2008, 113, doi: 10.1029/2008JA013668

  16. Lomb N R. Least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data. Astrophys Space Sci, 1976, 39: 447–462

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Scargle J D. Studies in astronomical time series analysis. II. Statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data. Astrophys J, 1982, 263: 835–853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Richardson L F. The supply of energy from and to atmospheric eddies. Proc R Soc Lond A, 1920, 67: 354–373

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kundu P, Beardsley R. Evidence of a critical Richardson number in moored measurements during the upwelling season off northern California. J Geophys Res, 1991, 96: 4855–4868

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lyons R, Panofsky H A, Wollaston S. The critical Richardson number and its implications for forecast problems. J Appl Meteorol, 1964, 3: 136–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Tsuda T, VanZandt T E, Mizumoto M, et al. Spectral analysis of temperature and Brunt-Väisälä frequency fluctuations observed by Radiosondes. J Geophys Res, 1991, 96: 17265–17278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Wu Y, Xu J, Yuan W, et al. Spectral analysis of 10-m resolution temperature profiles from balloon soundings over Beijing. Ann Geophys, 2006, 24: 1801–1808

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to GuoYing Jiang.

Additional information

This article is published with open access at

Rights and permissions

This article is published under an open access license. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section either on this page or in the PDF for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, please contact the Rights and Permissions team.

About this article

Cite this article

Jiang, G., Xu, J., Shi, D. et al. Observations of the first meteorological rocket of the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project. Chin. Sci. Bull. 56, 2131–2137 (2011).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project
  • meteorological rocket
  • atmospheric temperature
  • wind shear
  • atmospheric stability