Advertisement

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 55, Issue 35, pp 4058–4068 | Cite as

A high-resolution clay mineralogical record in the northern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum, and its time series provenance analysis

  • ZhiFei LiuEmail author
  • XiaJing Li
  • Christophe Colin
  • HuangMin Ge
Article Oceanology

Abstract

High-resolution clay mineralogical analysis of Core MD05-2904 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) covering the period since the Last Glacial Maximum shows that illite (29%–48%), smectite (14%–45%), chlorite (17%–28%), and minor kaolinite (6%–14%) comprise the clay mineral assemblage, and that time series variation does not present glacial-interglacial cyclicity. Provenance analysis indicates three end-member sources: almost all smectite derives from Luzon, all kaolinite is sourced from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite originate from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. By comparing clay mineral compositions in surface sediments from the three major source areas and of the SCS, we reconstructed a time series of clay mineral contribution from the major provenances to the northern slope of the SCS using the linear separation method for illite crystallinity. There were three stages of provenance change. (1) During 24.1–17.5 ka BP, contributions from Taiwan and Luzon were similar (30%–40%), while that from the Pearl River was only 25%. (2) During 17.5–14.0 ka BP, the contribution from Luzon decreased rapidly to 20%–25%, while that from Taiwan increased to 35% from an average of 25% at 18 ka BP, and that from the Pearl River increased largely to 40%. (3) During the Holocene, differences in contributions from the three major provenances increased: the contribution from Luzon increased slightly and then remained at 27%–35%, that from Taiwan increased rapidly and then remained at 55%–60%, and that from the Pearl River decreased to 15%. The change in clay mineral contributions from different provenances is influenced mainly by clay mineral production, monsoon rainfall denudation, oceanic current transport, and sea-level change.

Keywords

clay minerals illite crystallinity provenance Last Glacial Maximum sea level change East Asian monsoon South China Sea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hay W W, Sloan J L, Wold C N. Mass/age distribution and composition of sediments on the ocean floor and the global rate of sediment subduction. J Geophys Res, 1988, 93: 14933–14940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clift P D. Controls on the erosion of Cenozoic Asia and the flux of clastic sediment to the ocean. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2006, 241: 571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang W, Wang P. Sediment mass and distribution in the South China Sea since the Oligocene. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 2006, 49: 1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Griffin J J, Windom H, Goldberg E D. The distribution of clay minerals in the world ocean. Deep-Sea Res, 1968, 15: 433–459Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rateev M A, Gorbunova Z N, Lisitzyn A P, et al. The distribution of clay minerals in the oceans. Sedimentology, 1969, 13: 21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fagel N, Hillaire-Marcel C, Robert C. Changes in the Western Boundary Undercurrent outflow since the Last Glacial Maximum, from smectite/illite ratios in deep Labrador Sea sediments. Paleoceanography, 1997, 12: 79–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gingele F X, Deckker P D, Hillenbrand C D. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments between Indonesia and NW Australia—Source and transport by ocean currents. Mar Geol, 2001, 179: 135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colin C, Turpin L, Bertaux J, et al. Erosional history of the Himalayan and Burma ranges during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 1999, 171: 647–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang L, Sarnthein M, Erlenkeuser H, et al. East Asian monsoon climate during the Late Pleistocene: High-resolution sediment records from the South China Sea. Mar Geol, 1999, 156: 245–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang P, Prell W L, Blum P, et al. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Initial Reports, 2000, 184: 1–77Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clift P, Lee J I, Clark M, et al. Erosional response of South China to arc rifting and monsoonal strengthening: A record from the South China Sea. Mar Geol, 2002, 184: 207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu Z, Trentesaux A, Clemens S C, et al. Clay mineral assemblages in the northern South China Sea: Implications for East Asian monsoon evolution over the past 2 million years. Mar Geol, 2003, 201: 133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tamburini F, Adatte T, Föllmi K, et al. Investigating the history of East Asian monsoon and climate during the last glacial interglacial period (0–140000 years): Mineralogy and geochemistry of ODP Sites 1143 and 1144, South China Sea. Mar Geol, 2003, 201: 147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu Z, Colin C, Trentesaux A, et al. Erosional history of the eastern Tibetan Plateau over the past 190 ka: Clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the southwestern South China Sea. Mar Geol, 2004, 209: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boulay S, Colin C, Trentesaux A, et al. Sediment sources and East Asian monsoon intensity over the last 450 ka: Mineralogical and geochemical investigations on South China Sea sediments. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2005, 228: 260–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wan S, Li A, Clift P D, et al. Development of the East Asian monsoon: mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 2007, 254: 561–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Z, Trentesaux A, Clemens S C, et al. Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146): Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 2003, 46: 1223–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boulay S, Colin C, Trentesaux A, et al. Mineralogy and sedimentology of Pleistocene sediment in the South China Sea (ODP Site 1144). In: Prell W L, Wang P, Blum P, et al., eds. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 184. College Station: Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, 2003. 1–21Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu Z, Colin C, Trentesaux A, et al. Clay mineral records of East Asian monsoon evolution during late Quaternary in the southern South China Sea. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 2005, 48: 84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu Z, Zhao Y, Li J, et al. Late Quaternary clay minerals off Middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea: Implications for source analysis and East Asian monsoon evolution. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 2007, 50: 1674–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laj C, Wang P, Balut Y, et al. MD147-MARCO POLO IMAGES XII Cruise Report. Brest: Institut Polaire Français, 2005Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ge H, Li Q, Cheng X, et al. Late Quaternary high resolution monsoon records in planktonic stable isotopes from northern South China Sea(in Chinese). Earth Sci: J China Uni Geosci, 2010, 35: doi:10.3799/dqkx.2010.000Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu Z, Colin C, Huang W, et al. Climatic and tectonic controls on weathering in South China and the Indochina Peninsula: Clay mineralogical and geochemical investigations from the Pearl, Red, and Mekong drainage basins. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 2007, 8: Q05005, doi:10.1029/2006GC001490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu Z, Colin C, Huang W, et al. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea. Chinese Sci Bull, 2007, 52: 1101–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu Z, Tuo S, Colin C, et al. Detrital fine-grained sediment contribution from Taiwan to the northern South China Sea and its relation to regional ocean circulation. Mar Geol, 2008, 255: 149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu Z, Zhao Y, Colin C, et al. Chemical weathering in Luzon, Philippines from clay mineralogy and major-element geochemistry of river sediments. Appl Geochem, 2009, 24: 2195–2205Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu Z, Colin C, Li X, et al. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments of the northeastern South China Sea and surrounding fluvial drainage basins: Source and transport. Mar Geol, 2010, 277, doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2010.08.10Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Webster P J. The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions. Rev Geophys, 1994, 32: 427–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fang G, Fang W, Fang Y, et al. A survey of studies on the South China Sea upper ocean circulation. Acta Oceanogr Taiwan, 1998, 37: 1–16Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qu T, Girton J B, Whitehead J A. Deepwater overflow through Luzon Strait. J Geophys Res, 2006, 111: C01002, doi:10.1029/2005JC003139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang Y, Ren M E, Zhu D. Sediment supply to the continental shelf by the major rivers of China. J Geol Soc London, 1986, 143: 935–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Caruso M J, Gawarkiewicz G G, Beardsley R C. Interannual variability of the Kuroshio intrusion in the South China Sea. J Oceanogr, 2006, 62: 559–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holtzapffel T. Les Minéraux Argileux: Préparation, Analyse Diffractométrique et Determination. Soc Géol Nord Publ 12, 1985. 1–136Google Scholar
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Chamley H. Clay Sedimentology. Berlin: Springer, 1989. 1–623Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petschick R, Kuhn G, Gingele F. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments of the South Atlantic: Sources, transport, and relation to oceanography. Mar Geol, 1996, 130: 203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mix A C, Bard E, Schneider R. Environmental processes of the ice age: Land, oceans, glaciers (EPILOG). Quat Sci Rev, 2001, 20: 627–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Trentesaux A, Liu Z, Colin C, et al. Data report: Pleistocene paleoclimatic cyclicity of southern China: Clay mineral evidence recorded in the South China Sea (ODP Site 1146). In: Prell W L, Wang P, Blum P, et al., eds. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 184. College Station: Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, 2003. 1–10Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Boulay S, Colin C, Trentesaux A, et al. Sedimentary responses to the Pleistocene climatic variations recorded in the South China Sea. Quat Res, 2007, 68: 162–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shao L, Qiao P, Pang X, et al. Nd isotopic variations and its implications in the recent sediments from the northern South China Sea. Chinese Sci Bull, 2009, 54: 311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xu K, Milliman J D, Li A, et al. Yangtze- and Taiwan-derived sediments on the inner shelf of East China Sea. Continent Shelf Res, 2009, 29: 2240–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Milliman J D, Syvitski J P M. Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: The importance of small mountainous rivers. J Geol, 1992, 100: 525–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dadson S J, Hovius N, Chen H, et al. Links between erosion, runoff variability and seismicity in the Taiwan orogen. Nature, 2003, 426: 648–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huh C-A, Lin H-L, Lin S-W, et al. Modern accumulation rates and a budget of sediment off the Gaoping (Kaoping) River, SW Taiwan: A tidal and flood dominated depositional environment around a submarine canyon. J Mar Syst, 2009, 76: 405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Waelbroeck C, Labeyrie L, Michel E, et al. Sea-level and deep water temperature changes derived from benthic foraminifera isotopic records. Quat Sci Rev, 2002, 21: 295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yao Y, Harff J, Meyer M, et al. Reconstruction of paleocoastlines for the northwestern South China Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 2009, 52: 1127–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang Y J, Cheng H, Edwards R L, et al. A high-resolution absolute-dated late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science, 2001, 294: 2345–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dansgaard W, Johnsen S J, Clausen H B, et al. Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. Nature, 1993, 364: 218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yuan D, Han W, Hu D. Surface Kuroshio path in the Luzon Strait area derived from satellite remote sensing data. J Geophys Res, 2006, 111: C11007, doi:10.1029/2005JC003412CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • ZhiFei Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • XiaJing Li
    • 1
  • Christophe Colin
    • 2
  • HuangMin Ge
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Marine GeologyTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Laboratoire IDES, UMR 8148 CNRSUniversité de Paris XIOrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations