The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND): Science and design

Abstract

The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned large-scale observatory of ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic particles, with energies exceeding 108 GeV. Its goal is to solve the long-standing mystery of the origin of UHE cosmic rays. To do this, GRAND will detect an unprecedented number of UHE cosmic rays and search for the undiscovered UHE neutrinos and gamma rays associated to them with unmatched sensitivity. GRAND will use large arrays of antennas to detect the radio emission coming from extensive air showers initiated by UHE particles in the atmosphere. Its design is modular: 20 separate, independent sub-arrays, each of 10000 radio antennas deployed over 10000 km2. A staged construction plan will validate key detection techniques while achieving important science goals early. Here we present the science goals, detection strategy, preliminary design, performance goals, and construction plans for GRAND.

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Correspondence to Mauricio Bustamante.

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The GRAND project is supported by the APACHE of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant No. ANR-16-CE31-0001), the France-China Particle Physics Laboratory, the China Exchange Program from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Key Projects of Frontier Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-SLH022), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB23000000), and the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFA0404601). Rafael Alves Batista is supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (Grant No. 2017/12828-4). Mauricio Bustamante is partially supported from National Science Foundation (Grant Nos. PHY-1404311, and PHY-1714479). Mauricio Bustamante and Peter B. Denton are supported by Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF91), Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (Grant No. 1041811001), and Villum Fonden(Grant No. 13164). Washington Carvalho Jr. is supported by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (Grant No. 2015/15735-1). QuanBu Gou is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375209). Krijn D. De Vries is supported by the Flemish Foundation for Scientific Research (Grant No. FWO-12L3715N — K. D. de Vries). Charles Timmermans is supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). XiangPing Wu is supported by the Key Projects of Frontier Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences, (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-SLH022), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, (Grant No. XDB23000000). JianLi Zhang is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11505213), and “Data analysis for radio detection array at 21CMA base”. We thank Markus Ahlers, Daniel Ardouin, Johannes Blümer, Jordan Hanson, Andreas Haungs, Naoko Kurahashi, Pascal Lautridou, François Montanet, Angela Olinto, Andres Romero-Wolf, Subir Sarkar, Abigail Vieregg, and Stephanie Wissel for useful discussion and comments on the manuscript; Feng Yang and the staff in Ulastai; the engineers who developed the GRANDProto35 electronics, Julien Coridian, Jacques David, Olivier Le Dortz, David Martin, and Patrick Nayman; and the groups ofFuShun Zhang and LiXin Guo, who built the GRANDProto35 antennas and the Horizon Antennaprototypes. The GRAND neutrino simulations were run through the France-Asia Virtual Organisation on the IN2P3 computing center, the GRIF-LPNHE computing grid, the IHEP computing center. Part of the simulations was performed on the computational resource ForHLR I funded by the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts Baden-Württemberg and DFG (“Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft”). The GRAND cosmic-ray simulations were run on the Horizon Cluster, hosted by the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris. The SRTMGL1 (v3) topographical data used in this study were retrieved from the online USGS EarthExplorer and NASA Earthdata Search tools, courtesy of the NASA EOSDIS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), USGS/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Figures2and16were designed for the GRAND Collaboration by Ingrid Delgado.

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Álvarez-Muñiz, J., Alves Batista, R., Balagopal V., A. et al. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND): Science and design. Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 63, 219501 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11433-018-9385-7

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en

  • radio telescopes
  • neutrinos in astronomical observations
  • cosmic rays in astronomical observations
  • radiowave radiation: sources
  • galactic and extragalactic
  • cosmic rays: galactic and extragalactic