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A survey of Blockchain consensus algorithms: mechanism, design and applications


In 2008, Blockchain was introduced to the world as the underlying technology of the Bitcoin system. After more than a decade of development, various Blockchain systems have been proposed by both academia and industry. This paper focuses on the consensus algorithm, which is one of the core technologies of Blockchain. In this paper, we propose a unified consensus algorithm process model that is suitable for Blockchains based on both the chain and directed acyclic graph (DAG) structure. Subsequently, we analyze various mainstream Blockchain consensus algorithms and classify them according to their design in different phases of the process model. Additionally, we present an evaluation framework of Blockchain consensus algorithms and then discuss the security design principles that enable resistance from different attacks. Finally, we provide some suggestions for selecting consensus algorithms in different Blockchain application scenarios.

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This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB1000100), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61772030), and GF Innovative Research Program.

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Correspondence to Xiang Fu or Huaimin Wang.

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Fu, X., Wang, H. & Shi, P. A survey of Blockchain consensus algorithms: mechanism, design and applications. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 64, 121101 (2021).

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  • Blockchain
  • consensus algorithm
  • Byzantine fault-tolerant
  • process model
  • design principles