Exponentially weighted proportional fair scheduling algorithm for the OFDMA system


This study aims to propose an exponentially weighted proportional fair (EWPF) scheduling algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system for long-term evolution downlink transmission. The proposed algorithm improves the system performance in the user-perceived throughput (UPT) by adding exponential weights to different types of services. The UPT employed to measure the system capability is novel and customer oriented; it reflects the experiences of users in an efficient manner and determines whether the user’s scheduling is reasonable. The EWPF algorithm is compared with two other schedulers, and our simulation results showed that the EWPF can increase the overall UPT and can maintain the fairness for prioritizing the transmission of some types of traffic.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1

    Dobrushin R L. General formulation of Shannon’s main theorem in information theory. Amer Math Soc Trans, 1963, 33: 323–438

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Hara S, Prasad R. Overview of multicarrier CDMA. IEEE Commun Mag, 1997, 35: 126–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Wei H X, Li Y Z, Xiao L M, et al. Queue-aware energy-efficient scheduling and power allocation with feedback reduction in small-cell networks. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 048301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Jalali A, Padovani R, Pankaj R. Data throughput of CDMA-HDR a high efficiency-high data rate personal communication wireless system. In: Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference, Tokyo, 2000. 1854–1858

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Wengerter C, Ohlhorst J, Elbwart A G E. Fairness and throughput analysis for generalized proportional fair frequency scheduling in OFDMA. In: Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference, Stockholm, 2005. 1903–1907

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Ayhan M, Zhao Y, Choi H A. Utilizing geometric mean in proportional fair scheduling: enhanced throughput and fairness in LTE DL. In: Proceedings of Global Communications Conference, Washington, 2016

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Andrews M, Qian L, Stolyar A. Optimal utility based multi-user throughput allocation subject to throughput constraints. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Miami, 2005. 2415–2424

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Li X, Sun T T, Qin N N, et al. User scheduling for downlink FD-MIMO systems under Rician fading exploiting statistical CSI. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 082302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Lorenz D H, Orda A. Optimal partition of QoS requirements on unicast paths and multicast trees. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw, 2002, 10: 102–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Yu W J, Musavian L, Ni Q. Statistical delay QoS driven energy efficiency and effective capacity tradeoff for uplink multi-user multi-carrier systems. IEEE Trans Commun, 2017, 65: 3494–3508

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Piro G, Grieco L A, Boggia G, et al. Two-level downlink scheduling for real-time multimedia services in LTE networks. IEEE Trans Multimedia, 2011, 13: 1052–1065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Fei Z S, Xing C W, Li N. QoE-driven resource allocation for mobile IP services in wireless network. Sci China Inf Sci, 2015, 58: 012301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Kim Y, Park S. Analytical calculation of spectrum requirements for LTE-A using the probability distribution on the scheduled resource blocks. IEEE Commun Lett, 2018, 22: 602–605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Capozzi F, Piro G, Grieco L A, et al. Downlink packet scheduling in LTE cellular networks: key design issues and a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor, 2013, 15: 678–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Ekstrom H. QoS control in the 3GPP evolved packet system. IEEE Commun Mag, 2009, 47: 76–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    3GPP. Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); user equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception. 3GPP TS V10, 2011. http://arib.or.jp/english/html/overview/doc/STD-T104v1 00/2 T104/ARIB-STD-T104/Rel10/36/A36101-a30.pdf

  17. 17

    Jain R, Chiu D M, Hawe W. A Quantitative Measure of Fairness and Discrimination for Resource Allocation in Shared Systems. Technical Report DEC-TR-301, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Kelly F P, Maulloo A K, Tan D K H. Rate control for communication networks: shadow prices, proportional fairness and stability. J Oper Res Soc, 1998, 49: 237–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Kim H, Han Y. A proportional fair scheduling for multicarrier transmission systems. IEEE Commun Lett, 2005, 9: 210–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Zheng Y R, Xiao C S. Improved models for the generation of multiple uncorrelated Rayleigh fading waveforms. IEEE Commun Lett, 2002, 6: 256–258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Li Y, Yu F, Zheng S L, et al. LTE system level simulation with MATLAB. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications, Wuhan, 2011

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Prabhu G S, Shankar P M. Simulation of flat fading using MATLAB for classroom instruction. IEEE Trans Educ, 2002, 45: 19–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61703326, 61673308, 61673014), Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (Grant No. 2017JQ5037), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 20101186377).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Weisheng Chen or Xinpeng Fang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liang, S., Chen, W., Li, Y. et al. Exponentially weighted proportional fair scheduling algorithm for the OFDMA system. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 62, 42306 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9746-9

Download citation


  • exponentially weighted proportional fair
  • user perceived throughput
  • downlink scheduling algorithm
  • scheduled IP throughput