Universally composable secure geographic area verification without pre-shared secret


The geographic area information of smart devices is required for realizing efficient area-based operations in 5G networks, Internet of Things, and so on. Because majority of smart devices are unmanned and are deployed in a hostile environment, secure geographic area verification is one of the important security issues for ensuring the accuracy of geographic area information of smart devices. In this study, we investigate the composition security of geographic area verification in a universally composable (UC) framework. First, we design the ideal functionality of geographic area verification; further, we propose a novel pre-shared secret-free secure geographic area verification protocol CAVδ. We also propose an improved protocol CAVT δ exhibiting a smaller false accept ratio than that exhibited by CAVδ. The proposed protocols can be used for verifying the geographic area information of smart devices without the requirement of any pre-shared secret during the initialization phase and additional key management when the protocols are running. Furthermore, the proposed protocols support the batch verification of multiple smart devices in one run, which is considered to be suitable for several location-critical smart devices. Subsequently, in the UC framework, we proved that our protocols achieve the necessary composition security and that our protocols exhibit an ability to resist colluding attacks.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1

    Yang G, Zhou X S. Intelligent CPS: features and challenges. Sci China Inf Sci, 2016, 59: 050102

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Chen J, Zhang F, Sun J. Analysis of security in cyber-physical systems. Sci China Technol Sci, 2017, 60: 1975–1977

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Ji X S, Huang K Z, Jin L, et al. Overview of 5G security technology. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 081301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Li B, Wang W J, Yin Q Y, et al. An energy-efficient geographic routing based on cooperative transmission in wireless sensor networks. Sci China Inf Sci, 2013, 56: 072302

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Kwon T, Lee J H, Song J S. Location-based pairwise key predistribution for wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun, 2009, 8: 5436–5442

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Zhang Y C, Liu W, Fang Y G, et al. Secure localization and authentication in ultra-wideband sensor networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 2006, 24: 829–835

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Sastry N, Shankar U, Wagner D. Secure verification of location claims. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security, 2003. 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    He D B, Zeadally S, Wu L B. Certificateless public auditing scheme for cloud-assisted wireless body area networks. IEEE Syst J, 2018, 12: 64–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Shen J, Shen J, Chen X F, et al. An efficient public auditing protocol with novel dynamic structure for cloud data. IEEE Trans Inform Forensic Secur, 2017, 12: 2402–2415

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Wang D, Cheng H B, Wang P, et al. Zipf’s law in passwords. IEEE Trans Inform Forensic Secur, 2017, 12: 2776–2791

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Wang D, Wang P. Two birds with one stone: two-factor authentication with security beyond conventional bound. IEEE Trans Depend Secure Comput, 2018, 15: 708–722

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Shen J, Zhou T Q, Chen X F, et al. Anonymous and traceable group data sharing in cloud computing. IEEE Trans Inform Forensic Secur, 2018, 13: 912–925

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    He D B, Zeadally S, Kumar N, et al. Anonymous authentication for wireless body area networks with provable security. IEEE Syst J, 2017, 11: 2590–2601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Vora A, Nesterenko M. Secure location verification using radio broadcast. IEEE Trans Depend Secure Comput, 2006, 3: 377–385

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Du W L, Fang L, Ningi P. LAD: localization anomaly detection for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2005. 874–886

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Capkun S, Cagalj M, Srivastava M. Secure localization with hidden and mobile base stations. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2006. 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Chiang J T, Haas J J, Hu Y C. Secure and precise location verification using distance bounding and simultaneous multilateration. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security, 2009. 181–192

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Hasan R, Khan R, Zawoad S, et al. WORAL: a witness oriented secure location provenance framework for mobile devices. IEEE Trans Emerg Top Comput, 2016, 4: 128–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Perazzo P, Sorbelli F B, Conti M, et al. Drone path planning for secure positioning and secure position verification. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput, 2017, 16: 2478–2493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Sciancalepore S, Oligeri G, Di P R. Shooting to the stars: secure location verification via meteor burst communications. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security, 2018. 1–9

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Brands S, Chaum D. Distance-bounding protocols. In: Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT. Berlin: Springer, 1993. 344–359

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Rasmussen K B, Capkun S. Location privacy of distance bounding protocols. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 2008. 149–160

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Tippenhauer N O, Capkun S. Id-based secure distance bounding and localization. In: Proceedings of Computer Security-ESORICS, 2009. 621–636

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Capkun S, El D K, Tsudik G. Group distance bounding protocols. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Trust and Trustworthy Computing, 2012. 302–312

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Cremers C, Rasmussen K B, Schmidt B, et al. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols. In: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, San Francisco, 2012. 113–127

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Perazzo P, Dini G. Secure positioning with non-ideal distance bounding protocols. In: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC), Larnaca, 2015. 907–912

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Chandran N, Goyal V, Moriarty R, et al. Position based cryptography. In: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO. Berlin: Springer, 2009. 391–407

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Buhrman H, Chandran N, Fehr S, et al. Position-based quantum cryptography: impossibility and constructions. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference on Advances in Cryptology, Santa Barbara, 2011. 429–446

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Yang R P, Xu Q L, Au M H, et al. Position based cryptography with location privacy: a step for fog computing. Future Gener Comput Syst, 2018, 78: 799–806

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Zhang J W, Ma J F, Yang C, et al. Universally composable secure positioning in the bounded retrieval model. Sci China Inf Sci, 2015, 58: 110105

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Canetti R. Universally composable security: a new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In: Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 2001. 136–145

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Datta A, Derek A, Mitchell J C, et al. A derivation system and compositional logic for security protocols. J Comput Sec, 2005, 13: 423–482

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Zhang J W, Ma J F, Moon S J. Universally composable one-time signature and broadcast authentication. Sci China Inf Sci, 2010, 53: 567–580

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Hu X X, Zhang J, Zhang Z F, et al. Universally composable anonymous password authenticated key exchange. Sci China Inf Sci, 2017, 60: 52107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Zhang J W, Ma J F, Moon S J. Universally composable secure TNC model and EAP-TNC protocol in IF-T. Sci China Inf Sci, 2010, 53: 465–482

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Zhang J W, Ma J F, Yang C. Protocol derivation system for the Needham-Schroeder family. Sec Commun Netw, 2015, 8: 2687–2703

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    He C H, Sundararajan M, Datta A, et al. A modular correctness proof of ieee 802.11i and TLS. In: Proceedings of the 12th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 2005. 2–15

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Naszódi M. On some covering problems in geometry. In: Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 2016. 3555–3562

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61472310, U1536202, 61672413, 61672415, 61601107, U1708262) and China 111 Project (Grant No. B16037).

Author information



Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Junwei Zhang or Ning Lu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, J., Lu, N., Ma, J. et al. Universally composable secure geographic area verification without pre-shared secret. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 62, 32113 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9738-2

Download citation


  • geographic area verification
  • pre-shared secret-free
  • composition security
  • colluding attacks
  • provable security