Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Review on flexible photonics/electronics integrated devices and fabrication strategy

  • 610 Accesses

  • 9 Citations

Abstract

In recent years, to meet the greater demand for next generation electronic devices that are transplantable, lightweight and portable, flexible and large-scale integrated electronics attract much more attention have been of interest in both industry and academia. Organic electronics and stretchable inorganic electronics are the two major branches of flexible electronics. With the semiconductive and flexible properties of the organic semiconductor materials, flexible organic electronics have become a mainstay of our technology. Compared to organic electronics, stretchable and flexible inorganic electronics are fabricated via mechanical design with inorganic electronic components on flexible substrates, which have stretchability and flexibility to enable very large deformations without degradation of performance. This review summarizes the recent progress on fabrication strategies, such as hydrodynamic organic nanowire printing and inkjet-assisted nanotransfer printing of flexible organic electronics, and screen printing, soft lithography and transfer printing of flexible inorganic electronics. In addition, this review considers large-scale organic and inorganic flexible electronic systems and the future applications of flexible and stretchable electronics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Zardetto V, Brown T M, Reale A, et al. Substrates for flexible electronics: a practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys, 2011, 49: 638–648

  2. 2

    Someya T, Sekitani T, Iba S, et al. A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2004, 101: 9966–9970

  3. 3

    Yoon J, Baca A J, Park S I, et al. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs. Nat Mater, 2008, 7: 907–915

  4. 4

    Ahn J H, Kim H S, Lee K J, et al. Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials. Science, 2006, 314: 1754–1757

  5. 5

    Kaltenbrunner M, Sekitani T, Reeder J, et al. An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics. Nature, 2013, 499: 458–463

  6. 6

    Someya T, Bao Z, Malliaras G G. The rise of plastic bioelectronics. Nature, 2016, 540: 379–385

  7. 7

    Kim D H, Lu N, Ma R, et al. Epidermal electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 838–843

  8. 8

    Park S I, Ahn J H, Feng X, et al. Theoretical and experimental studies of bending of inorganic electronic materials on plastic substrates. Adv Funct Mater, 2008, 18: 2673–2684

  9. 9

    Feng X, Yang B D, Liu Y, et al. Stretchable ferroelectric nanoribbons with wavy configurations on elastomeric substrates. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 3326–3332

  10. 10

    Wang Y, Chen Y, Li H, et al. Buckling-based method for measuring the strain-photonic coupling effect of GaAs nanoribbons. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 8199–8206

  11. 11

    Imani S, Bandodkar A J, Mohan A V, et al. A wearable chemical-electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 11650

  12. 12

    Schwartz G, Tee B C K, Mei J, et al. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1859

  13. 13

    Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein H Y Y, et al. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 2016, 529: 509–514

  14. 14

    Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B, et al. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nat Nanotech, 2016, 11: 566–572

  15. 15

    Koh A, Kang D, Xue Y, et al. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat. Science Transl Medicine, 2016, 8: 165

  16. 16

    Li H, Xu Y, Li X, et al. Epidermal inorganic optoelectronics for blood oxygen measurement. Advanced Healthc Mater, 2017, 6: 1601013

  17. 17

    Chen Y, Lu S, Zhang S, et al. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. Sci Adv, 2017, 3: e1701629

  18. 18

    Webb R C, Ma Y, Krishnan S, et al. Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow. Sci Adv, 2015, 1: e1500701–e1500701

  19. 19

    Yokota T, Zalar P, Kaltenbrunner M, et al. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1501856–e1501856

  20. 20

    Jang K I, Han S Y, Xu S, et al. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4779

  21. 21

    Lee C H, Ma Y, Jang K I, et al. Soft core/shell packages for stretchable electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2015, 25: 3698–3704

  22. 22

    Sekitani T, Nakajima H, Maeda H, et al. Stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display using printable elastic conductors. Nat Mater, 2009, 8: 494–499

  23. 23

    Chen J L, Liu C T. Technology advances in flexible displays and substrates. IEEE Access, 2013, 1: 150–158

  24. 24

    Kim S, Kwon H J, Lee S, et al. Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 3511–3516

  25. 25

    Rogers J A, Bao Z, Baldwin K, et al. From the cover: paper-like electronic displays: large-area rubber-stamped plastic sheets of electronics and microencapsulated electrophoretic inks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001, 98: 4835–4840

  26. 26

    Kim D H, Lu N, Ghaffari R, et al. Materials for multifunctional balloon catheters with capabilities in cardiac electrophysiological mapping and ablation therapy. Nat Mater, 2011, 10: 316–323

  27. 27

    Lee C H, Kim H, Harburg D V, et al. Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants. NPG Asia Mater, 2015, 7: e227

  28. 28

    Briseno A L, Tseng R J, Ling M M, et al. High-performance organic single-crystal transistors on flexible substrates. Adv Mater, 2006, 18: 2320–2324

  29. 29

    Khang D Y, Jiang H, Huang Y, et al. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science, 2006, 311: 208–212

  30. 30

    Reuss R H, Chalamala B R, Moussessian A, et al. Macroelectronics: perspectives on technology and applications. Proc IEEE, 2005, 93: 1239–1256

  31. 31

    Chiang C K, Fincher Jr C, Park Y W, et al. Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene. Phys Rev Lett, 1977, 39: 1098–1101

  32. 32

    Tsumura A, Koezuka H, Ando T. Macromolecular electronic device: field-effect transistor with a polythiophene thin film. Appl Phys Lett, 1986, 49: 1210–1212

  33. 33

    Forrest S R. The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. Nature, 2004, 428: 911–918

  34. 34

    Tee B C K, Chortos A, Berndt A, et al. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor. Science, 2015, 350: 313–316

  35. 35

    Park K S, Baek J, Park Y, et al. Inkjet-assisted nanotransfer printing for large-scale integrated nanopatterns of various single-crystal organic materials. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 2874–2880

  36. 36

    Kumagai S, Murakami H, Tsuzuku K, et al. Solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid CMOS inverter exhibiting a high gain reaching 890. Org Electron, 2017, 48: 127–131

  37. 37

    Sun Y, Choi W M, Jiang H, et al. Controlled buckling of semiconductor nanoribbons for stretchable electronics. Nat Nanotech, 2006, 1: 201–207

  38. 38

    Kim J, Banks A, Cheng H, et al. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication. Small, 2015, 11: 906–912

  39. 39

    Xu B, Akhtar A, Liu Y, et al. An epidermal stimulation and sensing platform for sensorimotor prosthetic control, management of lower back exertion, and electrical muscle activation. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 4462–4471

  40. 40

    Xu R, Lee J W, Pan T, et al. Designing thin, ultrastretchable electronics with stacked circuits and elastomeric encapsulation materials. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27: 1604545

  41. 41

    Tang C W, VanSlyke S A. Organic electroluminescent diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1987, 51: 913–915

  42. 42

    Hoofman R J O M, de Haas M P, Siebbeles L D A, et al. Highly mobile electrons and holes on isolated chains of the semiconducting polymer poly(phenylene vinylene). Nature, 1998, 392: 54–56

  43. 43

    Afzali A, Dimitrakopoulos C D, Breen T L. High-performance, solution-processed organic thin film transistors from a novel pentacene precursor. J Am Chem Soc, 2002, 124: 8812–8813

  44. 44

    Horowitz G, Peng X Z, Fichou D, et al. Role of the semiconductor/insulator interface in the characteristics of-conjugated-oligomer-based thin-film transistors. Synth Met, 1992, 51: 419–424

  45. 45

    Kawasaki N, Kalb W L, Mathis T, et al. Flexible picene thin film field-effect transistors with parylene gate dielectric and their physical properties. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96: 113305

  46. 46

    Park Y, Han K S, Lee B H, et al. High performance n-type organic-inorganic nanohybrid semiconductors for flexible electronic devices. Org Electron, 2011, 12: 348–352

  47. 47

    Gburek B, Wagner V. Influence of the semiconductor thickness on the charge carrier mobility in P3HT organic field-effect transistors in top-gate architecture on flexible substrates. Org Electron, 2010, 11: 814–819

  48. 48

    Uno M, Nakayama K, Soeda J, et al. High-speed flexible organic field-effect transistors with a 3D structure. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 3047–3051

  49. 49

    Min S Y, Kim T S, Kim B J, et al. Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1773

  50. 50

    Ahn J H, Kim H S, Menard E, et al. Bendable integrated circuits on plastic substrates by use of printed ribbons of single-crystalline silicon. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 213501

  51. 51

    Kim D H, Song J, Choi W M, et al. From the cover: materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008, 105: 18675–18680

  52. 52

    Ko H C, Shin G, Wang S, et al. Curvilinear electronics formed using silicon membrane circuits and elastomeric transfer elements. Small, 2009, 5: 2703–2709

  53. 53

    Kim D H, Xiao J, Song J, et al. Stretchable, curvilinear electronics based on inorganic materials. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 2108–2124

  54. 54

    Ma Y, Feng X, Rogers J A, et al. Design and application of ‘J-shaped’ stress-strain behavior in stretchable electronics: a review. Lab Chip, 2017, 17: 1689–1704

  55. 55

    Meitl M A, Zhu Z T, Kumar V, et al. Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp. Nat Mater, 2006, 5: 33–38

  56. 56

    Baca A J, Ahn J H, Sun Y, et al. Semiconductor wires and ribbons for high-performance flexible electronics. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2008, 47: 5524–5542

  57. 57

    Feng X, Meitl M A, Bowen A M, et al. Competing fracture in kinetically controlled transfer printing. Langmuir, 2007, 23: 12555–12560

  58. 58

    Kim S, Wu J, Carlson A, et al. Microstructured elastomeric surfaces with reversible adhesion and examples of their use in deterministic assembly by transfer printing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2010, 107: 17095–17100

  59. 59

    Huang Y, Zheng N, Cheng Z, et al. Direct laser writing-based programmable transfer printing via bioinspired shape memory reversible adhesive. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8: 35628–35633

  60. 60

    Chen H, Feng X, Huang Y, et al. Experiments and viscoelastic analysis of peel test with patterned strips for applications to transfer printing. J Mech Phys Solids, 2013, 61: 1737–1752

  61. 61

    Cai S, Zhang C, Li H, et al. Surface evolution and stability transition of silicon wafer subjected to nano-diamond grinding. AIP Adv, 2017, 7: 035221

  62. 62

    Thorsen T, Maerkl S J, Quake S R. Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science, 2002, 298: 580–584

  63. 63

    Zhang L, Di C-a, Yu G, et al. Solution processed organic field-effect transistors and their application in printed logic circuits. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20: 7059–7073

  64. 64

    Mishra A, Bäuerle P. Small molecule organic semiconductors on the move: promises for future solar energy technology. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2012, 51: 2020–2067

  65. 65

    Lin P, Yan F. Organic thin-film transistors for chemical and biological sensing. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 34–51

  66. 66

    Wang C H, Hsieh C Y, Hwang J C. Flexible organic thin-film transistors with silk fibroin as the gate dielectric. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1630–1634

  67. 67

    Bettinger C J, Becerril H A, Kim D H, et al. Microfluidic arrays for rapid characterization of organic thin-film transistor performance. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1257–1261

  68. 68

    Knopfmacher O, Hammock M L, Appleton A L, et al. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 2954

  69. 69

    Pandey M, Pandey S S, Nagamatsu S, et al. Solvent driven performance in thin floating-films of PBTTT for organic field effect transistor: role of macroscopic orientation. Org Electron, 2017, 43: 240–246

  70. 70

    Soeda J, Matsui H, Okamoto T, et al. Highly oriented polymer semiconductor films compressed at the surface of ionic liquids for high-performance polymeric organic field-effect transistors. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 6430–6435

  71. 71

    McCulloch I, Heeney M, Bailey C, et al. Liquid-crystalline semiconducting polymers with high charge-carrier mobility. Nat Mater, 2006, 5: 328–333

  72. 72

    Park J U, Hardy M, Kang S J, et al. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing. Nat Mater, 2007, 6: 782–789

  73. 73

    Lee S, Moon G D, Jeong U. Continuous production of uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers by electrospinning and their electrical properties. J Mater Chem, 2009, 19: 743–748

  74. 74

    Liu H, Reccius C H, Craighead H G. Single electrospun regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofiber field-effect transistor. Appl Phys Lett, 2005, 87: 253106

  75. 75

    Singh M, Haverinen H M, Dhagat P, et al. Inkjet printing-process and its applications. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 673–685

  76. 76

    Hwang J K, Cho S, Dang J M, et al. Direct nanoprinting by liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer moulding. Nat Nanotech, 2010, 5: 742–748

  77. 77

    Liang J, Tong K, Pei Q. A water-based silver-nanowire screen-print ink for the fabrication of stretchable conductors and wearable thin-film transistors. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 5986–5996

  78. 78

    Moonen P F, Yakimets I, Huskens J. Fabrication of transistors on flexible substrates: from mass-printing to highresolution alternative lithography strategies. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 5526–5541

  79. 79

    Kwon S, Kim W, Kim H C, et al. P-148: polymer light-emitting diodes using the dip coating method on flexible fiber substrates for wearable displays. SID Symposium Digest Technical Papers, 2015, 46: 1753–1755

  80. 80

    Søndergaard R, Hösel M, Angmo D, et al. Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells. Mater Today, 2012, 15: 36–49

  81. 81

    Hyun W J, Secor E B, Hersam M C, et al. High-resolution patterning of graphene by screen printing with a silicon stencil for highly flexible printed electronics. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 109–115

  82. 82

    Krebs F C, Alstrup J, Spanggaard H, et al. Production of large-area polymer solar cells by industrial silk screen printing, lifetime considerations and lamination with polyethyleneterephthalate. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2004, 83: 293–300

  83. 83

    Qin D, Xia Y, Whitesides G M. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning. Nat Protoc, 2010, 5: 491–502

  84. 84

    Kumar A, Whitesides G M. Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol “ink” followed by chemical etching. Appl Phys Lett, 1993, 63: 2002–2004

  85. 85

    Xia Y, McClelland J J, Gupta R, et al. Replica molding using polymeric materials: a practical step toward nanomanufacturing. Adv Mater, 1997, 9: 147–149

  86. 86

    Zhao X M, Xia Y, Whitesides G M. Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-structures: microtransfer molding. Adv Mater, 1996, 8: 837–840

  87. 87

    Perl A, Reinhoudt D N, Huskens J. Microcontact printing: limitations and achievements. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 2257–2268

  88. 88

    Kooy N, Rahman N, Mohamed K. Patterning of multi-leveled microstructures on flexible polymer substrate using roll-to-roll ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. In: Prcoeedings of the 35th IEEE/CPMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Conference (IEMT), Ipoh, 2012. 1–5

  89. 89

    Chou S Y, Krauss P R, Renstrom P J. Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers. Appl Phys Lett, 1995, 67: 3114–3116

  90. 90

    Haisma J, Verheijen M, Heuvel K V D, et al. Mold-assisted nanolithography: a process for reliable pattern replication. J Vac Sci Technol B, 1996, 14: 4124–4128

  91. 91

    Ahn S H, Guo L J. Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting. ACS Nano, 2009, 3: 2304–2310

  92. 92

    Meitl M A, Zhu Z T, Kumar V, et al. Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp. Nat Mater, 2005, 5: 33–38

  93. 93

    Menard E, Meitl M A, Sun Y G, et al. Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems. Chem Rev, 2007, 107: 1117–1160

  94. 94

    Baughman R H, Zakhidov A A, de Heer W A. Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications. Science, 2002, 297: 787–792

  95. 95

    Björk P, Holmström S, Inganäs O. Soft lithographic printing of patterns of stretched DNA and DNA/electronic polymer wires by surface-energy modification and transfer. Small, 2006, 2: 1068–1074

  96. 96

    Smythe E J, Dickey M D, Whitesides G M, et al. A technique to transfer metallic nanoscale patterns to small and non-planar surfaces. ACS Nano, 2009, 3: 59–65

  97. 97

    Lu BW, Chen Y, Ou D P, et al. Ultra-flexible piezoelectric devices integrated with heart to harvest the biomechanical energy. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 16065

  98. 98

    Dagdeviren C, Yang B D, Su Y, et al. Conformal piezoelectric energy harvesting and storage from motions of the heart, lung, and diaphragm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 1927–1932

  99. 99

    Park S I, Xiong Y, Kim R H, et al. Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays. Science, 2009, 325: 977–981

  100. 100

    Kim D H, Ahn J H, Choi W M, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits. Science, 2008, 320: 507–511

  101. 101

    Saeidpourazar R, Li R, Li Y, et al. Laser-driven micro transfer placement of prefabricated microstructures. J Microelectromech Syst, 2012, 21: 1049–1058

  102. 102

    Eisenhaure J D, Sang I R, Al-Okaily A A M, et al. The use of shape memory polymers for microassembly by transfer printing. J Microelectromech Syst, 2014, 23: 1012–1014

  103. 103

    Reese C, Roberts M, Ling M M, et al. Organic thin film transistors. Mater Today, 2004, 7: 20–27

  104. 104

    Bettinger C J, Bao Z. Organic thin-film transistors fabricated on resorbable biomaterial substrates. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 651–655

  105. 105

    Klauk H, Halik M, Zschieschang U, et al. Flexible organic complementary circuits. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2005, 52: 618–622

  106. 106

    Jung Y H, Chang T H, Zhang H, et al. High-performance green flexible electronics based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibril paper. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 7170

  107. 107

    Grimsdale A C, Leok Chan K, Martin R E, et al. Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices. Chem Rev, 2009, 109: 897–1091

  108. 108

    Roberts M E, Sokolov A N, Bao Z. Material and device considerations for organic thin-film transistor sensors. J Mater Chem, 2009, 19: 3351–3363

  109. 109

    Thompson B C, Fréchet J M J. Polymer-fullerene composite solar cells. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2008, 47: 58–77

  110. 110

    Zhou L, Wanga A, Wu S C, et al. All-organic active matrix flexible display. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 88: 083502

  111. 111

    Mei J, Kim D H, Ayzner A L, et al. Siloxane-terminated solubilizing side chains: bringing conjugated polymer backbones closer and boosting hole mobilities in thin-film transistors. J Am Chem Soc, 2011, 133: 20130–20133

  112. 112

    Sun S, Lan L, Xiao P, et al. Flexible organic field-effect transistors with high-reliability gate insulators prepared by a room-temperature, electrochemical-oxidation process. RSC Adv, 2015, 5: 15695–15699

  113. 113

    Lee B H, Hsu B B, Patel S N, et al. Flexible organic transistors with controlled nanomorphology. Nano Lett, 2015, 16: 314–319

  114. 114

    Kelley T W, Muyres D V, Baude P F, et al. High performance organic thin film transistors. MRS Online Proceedings Library Archive, 2003, 771: 169–179

  115. 115

    Fukuda K, Takeda Y, Yoshimura Y, et al. Fully-printed high-performance organic thin-film transistors and circuitry on one-micron-thick polymer films. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4147

  116. 116

    Mannsfeld S C B, Tee B C K, Stoltenberg R M, et al. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers. Nat Mater, 2010, 9: 859–864

  117. 117

    Tee B C K, Chortos A, Dunn R R, et al. Tunable flexible pressure sensors using microstructured elastomer geometries for intuitive electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24: 5427–5434

  118. 118

    Sekitani T, Yokota T, Zschieschang U, et al. Organic nonvolatile memory transistors for flexible sensor arrays. Science, 2009, 326: 1516–1519

  119. 119

    Liang J, Li L, Pei Q, et al. A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes. Sci Rep, 2014, 4: 4307

  120. 120

    Kim W, Kwon S, Lee S M, et al. Soft fabric-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Org Electron Phys Mater Appl, 2013, 14: 3007–3013

  121. 121

    Han T H, Lee Y, Choi M R, et al. Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode. Nat Photon, 2012, 6: 105–110

  122. 122

    Suzuki M, Fukagawa H, Nakajima Y, et al. A 5.8–in. phosphorescent color AMOLED display fabricated by ink-jet printing on plastic substrate. J Soc Inf Display, 2012, 17: 1037–1042

  123. 123

    Madaria A R, Kumar A, Ishikawa F N, et al. Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique. Nano Res, 2010, 3: 564–573

  124. 124

    Ko H C, Stoykovich M P, Song J, et al. A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics. Nature, 2008, 454: 748–753

  125. 125

    Kim D H, Viventi J, Amsden J J, et al. Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics. Nat Mater, 2010, 9: 511–517

  126. 126

    Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J, et al. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 2773–2778

  127. 127

    Hattori Y, Falgout L, Lee W, et al. Multifunctional skin-like electronics for quantitative, clinical monitoring of cutaneous wound healing. Adv Healthcare Mater, 2014, 3: 1597–1607

  128. 128

    Huang X, Liu Y, Cheng H, et al. Materials and designs for wireless epidermal sensors of hydration and strain. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24: 3846–3854

  129. 129

    Chen Y, Lu B, Chen Y, et al. Biocompatible and ultra-flexible inorganic strain sensors attached to skin for long-term vital signs monitoring. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2016, 37: 496–499

  130. 130

    Chen Y, Lu B, Chen Y, et al. Breathable and stretchable temperature sensors inspired by skin. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 11505

  131. 131

    Liu Y, Norton J J S, Qazi R, et al. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1601185–e1601185

  132. 132

    Hu X, Krull P, de Graff B, et al. Stretchable inorganic-semiconductor electronic systems. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 2933–2936

  133. 133

    Xu J, Shen G. A flexible integrated photodetector system driven by on-chip microsupercapacitors. Nano Energy, 2015, 13: 131–139

  134. 134

    Gao L, Zhang Y, Malyarchuk V, et al. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4938

  135. 135

    Yu C, Li Y, Zhang X, et al. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 12998–13003

  136. 136

    Shin G, Gomez A M, Al-Hasani R, et al. Flexible near-field wireless optoelectronics as subdermal implants for broad applications in optogenetics. Neuron, 2017, 93: 509–521.e3

  137. 137

    Xu L, Gutbrod S R, Bonifas A P, et al. 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 3329

  138. 138

    Son D, Koo J H, Song J K, et al. Stretchable carbon nanotube charge-trap floating-gate memory and logic devices for wearable electronics. ACS Nano, 2015, 9: 5585–5593

  139. 139

    Fang H, Yu K J, Gloschat C, et al. Capacitively coupled arrays of multiplexed flexible silicon transistors for long-term cardiac electrophysiology. Nat Biomed Eng, 2017, 1: 0038

  140. 140

    Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U, et al. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 15894

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (973) (Grant No. 2015CB351904) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11625207, 11320101001, 11227801).

Author information

Correspondence to Xue Feng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cai, S., Han, Z., Wang, F. et al. Review on flexible photonics/electronics integrated devices and fabrication strategy. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61, 060410 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9442-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • flexible and stretchable electronics
  • organic photonics/electronics
  • inorganic photonics/electronics
  • fabrication strategies
  • flexible electronic system