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Impacts of practical channel impairments on the downlink spectral efficiency of large-scale distributed antenna systems

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Abstract

Channel impairments are major limiting factors in the performance of large-scale antenna systems. In this paper, we analyze the impacts of practical channel impairments caused by pilot contamination, Doppler shift, and phase noise on the downlink spectral efficiency of large-scale distributed antenna systems (L-DASs) with maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming, in which per user power normalization is considered. Using a joint channel model that allows study of the simultaneous impacts of these channel impairments, we derive accurate and tractable closed-form approximations for the ergodic achievable downlink rate, thereby enabling spectral efficiency analysis of L-DASs and an efficient evaluation of the impacts of the channel impairments. It is shown that channel impairments reduce the downlink spectral efficiency and have a significant impact on ZF beamforming. The asymptotic user rate limit is also determined, from which we analyze the asymptotic performance of L-DASs with channel impairments. The analytical results show that MRT and ZF beamforming achieve the same asymptotic performance limit even with channel impairments. It is also found that the use of a large-scale antenna array at the base station sides can weaken the impacts of channel impairments.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos. 61501113, 61571120, 61271205, 61521061, 61372100,), and Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant Nos. BK20150630, BK20151415).

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Correspondence to Jiamin Li.

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Li, J., Wang, D., Zhu, P. et al. Impacts of practical channel impairments on the downlink spectral efficiency of large-scale distributed antenna systems. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 62, 22303 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9413-6

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Keywords

  • Doppler shift
  • phase noise
  • large-scale distributed antenna systems
  • spectral efficiency
  • pilot contamination