Electromechanical modeling of eye fatigue detecting using flexible piezoelectric sensors

Abstract

Eye fatigue has attracted significant interest due to its potential harm to human daily activities. An ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensor was currently designed and fabricated to detect eye fatigue by deforming together with the eyelid epidermis. Herein we develop a theoretical model to illustrate the correlation between the eyelid motion and the signals output by the piezoelectric sensor. The theoretical predictions on the eyelid motion based on the measured electrical output agree well with the in vivo observations in experiment. A simple scaling law is established to evaluate the impacts of different parameters on the function ability of the flexible piezoelectric sensor. The results may provide useful guidelines for designing and optimizing similar devices for alike biological motions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    Connor J, Norton R, Ameratunga S, et al. Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study. BMJ, 2002, 324: 1125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Huang J, Wang Y, Fu Z Y, et al. Fatigue among clinicians and the safety of patients. Chinese Medical Ethics, 2008, 347: 1249–1255

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Lal S K L, Craig A. A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biol Psychol, 2001, 55: 173–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Saito S. Does fatigue exist in a quantitative measurement of eye movements? Ergonomics, 1992, 35: 607–615

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Wu J D, Chen T R. Development of a drowsiness warning system based on the fuzzy logic images analysis. Expert Syst Appl, 2008, 34: 1556–1561

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Dinges D F, Grace R. Perclos: a valid psychophysiological measure of alertness as assessed by psychomotor vigilance. Tech Brief, 1998, 35: 607–615

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Divjak M, Bischof H. Eye blink based fatigue detection for prevention of computer vision syndrome. In: Proceedings of Conference on Machine Vision Application, Yokohama, 2009. 350–353

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Zhang Z T, Zhang J S. A new real-time eye tracking for driver fatigue detection. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Telecommunications, Chengdu, 2006. 8–11

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Ji Q, Zhu Z, Lan P. Real-time nonintrusive monitoring and prediction of driver fatigue. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2004, 53: 1052–1068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Martirosyan N, Kalani M Y. Epidermal electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 485–486

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Wang S D, Li M, Wu J, et al. Mechanics of epidermal electronics. J Appl Mech, 2012, 79: 031022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J, et al. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 2773–2778

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Lu C F, Wu S, Lu B W, et al. Ultrathin exible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue. J Micromech Microeng, 2018, 28: 2

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Jiang H, Khang D Y, Song J, et al. Finite deformation mechanics in buckled thin films on compliant supports. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007, 104: 15607–15612

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Jiang H, Sun Y, Rogers J A, et al. Mechanics of precisely controlled thin film buckling on elastomeric substrate. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 133119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Zhang Y Y, Chen Y S, Lu B W, et al. Electromechanical modeling of energy harvesting from the motion of left ventricle in closed chest environment. J Appl Mech, 2016, 83: 061007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Ding H J, Chen W Q. 3 dimensional problems of piezoelasticity. Nova Biomed, 2001, 532

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Lente M H, Eiras J A. Interrelationship between self-heating and ferroelectric properties in PZT ceramics during polarization reorientation. J Phys-Condens Matter, 2000, 12: 5939–5950

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Mitchell J A, Reddy J N. A refined hybrid plate theory for composite laminates with piezoelectric laminae. Int J Solids Struct, 1995, 32: 2345–2367

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Agache P G, Monneur C, Leveque J L, et al. Mechanical properties and Young’s modulus of human skin in vivo. Arch Dermatol Res, 1980, 269: 221–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Takema Y, Yorimoto Y, Kawai M, et al. Age-related changes in the elastic properties and thickness of human facial skin. Br J Dermatol, 1994, 131: 641–648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Eriksson M, Papanikolopoulos N P. Driver fatigue: a vision-based approach to automatic diagnosis. Transpation Res Part C-Emerg Technol, 2001, 9: 399–413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Schmidtke K, Büttner-ennever J A. Nervous control of eyelid function. Brain, 1992, 115: 227–247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    von Cramon D, Schuri U. Blink frequency and speech motor activity. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18: 603–606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Evinger C, Manning K A, Sibony P A. Eyelid movements. mechanisms and normal data. Invest Ophth Vis Sci, 1991, 32: 387–400

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322216, 11621062).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chaofeng Lu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lu, C., Wu, S., Zhang, Y. et al. Electromechanical modeling of eye fatigue detecting using flexible piezoelectric sensors. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61, 060417 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-9397-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • electromechanical model
  • flexible piezoelectric sensors
  • eye fatigue monitoring
  • scaling law
  • micromechanics