An intelligent partitioning approach of the system-on-chip for flexible and stretchable systems


In this paper, we propose an intelligent partitioning approach of the system-on-chip (SoC) to improve the bendability and stretchability of flexible and stretchable systems. The proposed approach partitions the SoC intelligently into clusters of functional modules according to the communication flows and area constraint. Based on the communication volume between clusters, a heuristic algorithm is applied to map these clusters onto the 2D mesh network-on-chip (NoC) for co-optimization of communication energy and delay. Experimental results show that our approach can effectively partition the SoC into small ICs of the same size. The approach also reduces power consumption and communication delay by 10.64%–56.63% and 15.06%–50.30%, respectively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1

    Wong W S, Salleo A. Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications. Berlin: Springer, 2009

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Sekitani T, Zschieschang U, Klauk H, et al. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability. Nat Mater, 2010, 9: 1015–1022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Gupta U, Ogras U Y. Extending networks from chips to flexible and stretchable electronics. In: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS), Nara, 2016. 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Council N R. Flexible Electronics for Security, Manufacturing, and Growth in the United States: Summary of a Symposium. Washington: The National Academies Press, 2013

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Kim D H, Ahn J H, Choi W M, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits. Science, 2008, 320: 507–511

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Kim D H, Song J, Choi W M, et al. From the cover: materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008, 105: 18675–18680

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Yoon J, Baca A J, Park S I, et al. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs. Nat Mater, 2008, 7: 907–915

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Kim D H, Kim Y S, Wu J, et al. Flexible electronics: ultrathin silicon circuits with strain-isolation layers and mesh layouts for high-performance electronics on fabric, vinyl, leather, and paper. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 3703–3707

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Fusella E, Cilardo A. PhoNoCMap: an application mapping tool for photonic networks-on-chip. In: Proceedings of 2016 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), Dresden, 2016. 289–292

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Chen W, Deng C C, Liu L B, et al. An efficient application mapping approach for the co-optimization of reliability, energy, and performance in reconfigurable NoC architectures. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circ Syst, 2015, 34: 1264–1277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Li J S, Pan Y. A fast and energy efficient branch and bound algorithm for NoC task mapping. In: Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD), New York, 2015. 9–16

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Bo H, Song C, Wei Z, et al. Application-specific network-on-chip synthesis with topology-aware floorplanning. In: Proceedings of the 25th Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI), Brasilia, 2012. 1–6

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Ye T T, Benini L, Micheli G D. Analysis of power consumption on switch fabrics in network routers. In: Proceedings of 2002 Design Automation Conference, New Orleans, 2002. 524–529

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Elmiligi H, Morgan A A, El-Kharashi M W, et al. A delay-aware topology-based design for networks-on-chip applications. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Design and Test Workshop (IDT), Riyadh, 2009. 1–5

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Sivanandam S N, Deepa S N. Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Berlin: Springer, 2008

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Chatha K S, Srinivasan K. Layout aware design of mesh based NoC architectures. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis (CODES+ISSS’ 06), Seoul, 2006. 136–141

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Seiculescu C, Murali S, Benini L, et al. SunFloor 3D: a tool for networks on chip topology synthesis for 3-D systems on chips. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circ Syst, 2010, 29: 1987–2000

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Yu B, Dong S Q, Chen S, et al. Floorplanning and topology generation for application-specific network-on-chip. In: Proceedings of the 15th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), Taipei, 2010. 535–540

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Dick R P, Rhodes D L, Wolf W. TGFF: task graphs for free. In: Proceedings of Hardware/Software Codesign, Seattle, 1998. 97–101

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Shuang Y, Fen G, Gui F, et al. A two-phase floorplanning approach for application-specific network-on-chip. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on ASIC, Shenzhen, 2013. 1–4

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Zhong L L, Sheng J Y, Jing M E, et al. An optimized mapping algorithm based on simulated annealing for regular NoC architecture. In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on ASIC, Xiamen, 2011. 389–392

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Li Z X, Liu Y, Cheng M S. Solving NoC mapping problem with improved particle swarm algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence (ICACI), Hangzhou, 2013. 12–16

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Palaniveloo V A, Ambrose J A, Sowmya A. Improving GA-based NoC mapping algorithms using a formal model. In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI, Tampa, 2014. 344–349

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB351906), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172030), and Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (111 Project) (Grant No. B12026).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Changqing Xu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, C., Liu, Y. & Yang, Y. An intelligent partitioning approach of the system-on-chip for flexible and stretchable systems. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61, 060415 (2018).

Download citation


  • functional module clustering
  • cluster mapping
  • SoC
  • flexible and stretchable systems