Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Laplace plane and low inclination geosynchronous radar mission design

Abstract

This study is inspired by the Laplace orbit plane property of requiring minimal station-keeping and therefore its potential use for long-term geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEOSAR) imaging. A set of GEOSAR user requirements is presented and analysed to identify significant mission requirements. Imaging geometry and power demand are assessed as a function of relative satellite speed (which is determined largely by choice of orbit inclination). Estimates of the cost of station-keeping as a function of orbit inclination and right ascension are presented to compare the benefits of different orbit choices. The conclusion is that the Laplace plane (and more generally, orbits with inclinations up to 15°) are attractive choices for GEOSAR.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Tomiyasu K. Synthetic aperture radar in geosynchronous orbit. In: Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Maryland, 1978. 42–45

  2. 2

    Tomiyasu K, Pacelli J. Synthetic aperture radar imaging from an inclined geosynchronous orbit. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 1983, GE-21: 324–329

  3. 3

    Madsen S, Edelstein W, DiDomenico L, et al. A geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar: for tectonic mapping, disaster management and measurements of vegetation and soil moisture. In: Proceedings of IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Sydney, 2001. 447–449

  4. 4

    Prati C, Rocca F, Giancola D, et al. Passive geosynchronous SAR system reusing backscattered digital audio broad-casting signals. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 1998, 36: 1973–1976

  5. 5

    Monti Guarnieri A, Tebaldini S, Rocca F, et al. GEMINI: geosynchronous SAR for Earth monitoring by interferometry and imaging. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, 2012. 210–213

  6. 6

    Hobbs S, Mitchell C, Forte B, et al. System design for geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar missions. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 2014, 52: 1–14

  7. 7

    Hu C, Long T, Zeng T, et al. The accurate focussing and resolution analysis method in geosynchronous SAR. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 2011, 49: 3548–3563

  8. 8

    Hu C, Li X R, Long T, et al. GEO SAR interferometry: theory and feasibility study. In: Proceedings of IET International Radar Conference, Xi’an, 2013. 1–5

  9. 9

    Long T, Tian Y, Hu C, et al. A method of determining the direction of velocity space-variance in GEO SAR. In: Proceedings of IET International Radar Conference, Xi’an, 2013. 1–4

  10. 10

    International Telecommunications Union. Recommendation ITU-R S.484-3, Station-keeping in longitude of geosta- tionary satellites in the fixed-satellite service. 2000

  11. 11

    Monti Guarnieri A, Djelaili F, Schulz D, et al. Wide coverage, fine resolution, geosynchronous SAR for atmospheric and terrain observations. In: Proceedings of ESA Living Planet Symposium, Edinburgh, 2013. 147

  12. 12

    Hobbs S. Laplace plane GeoSAR feasibility study. College of Aeronautics Report SP003, Cranfield University. 2015

  13. 13

    Rosengren A, Scheeres D, McMahon J. The classical Laplace plane as a stable disposal orbit for geostationay satellites. Adv Space Res, 2014, 53: 1219–1228

  14. 14

    Dong X C, Hu C, Tian Y, et al. Experimental study of ionospheric impacts on geosynchronous SAR using GPS signals. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Observ Remote Sens, 2016, 9: 2171–2183

  15. 15

    Hu C, Li Y H, Dong X C, et al. Impacts of temporal-spatial variant background ionosphere on repeat-track GEO D-InSAR system. Remote Sens, 2016, 8: 916

  16. 16

    Hu C, Li Y H, Dong X C, et al. Performance analysis of L-band geosynchronous SAR imaging in the prescence of ionospheric scintillation. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 2017, 55: 159–172

  17. 17

    Wadge G, Monti Guarnieri A, et al. Potential atmospheric and terrestrial applications of geosynchronous radar. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Quebec, 2014. 946–949

  18. 18

    Alcalde Barahona A. Luni-solar perturbations and station-keeping for geosynchronous orbits. MSc Thesis. Cranfield University, UK.2015

  19. 19

    British Standards Institute. BS ISO 24113:2011 Space systems—Space debris mitigation requirements. 2011

  20. 20

    Fortescue P, Stark J, Swinerd G. Spacecraft Systems Engineering. 3rd ed. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2003

Download references

Acknowledgments

Parts of this research have been supported by the European Space Agency, the UK’s Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation, and a ‘111’ Program grant to a consortium including Beijing Institute of Technology, China, and Cranfield University, UK. Particular thanks are due to Professors Andrea Monti Guarnieri (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) and Geoff Wadge (University of Reading, UK) who led the study of GeoSTARe user requirements reported in this article, and to Aida Alcalda Barahona for calculating the costs of station-keeping. The anonymous referees’ constructive comments are much appreciated. Students of the MSc in Astronautics and Space Engineering at Cranfield University for the academic year 2014–2015 studied the feasibility of a Laplace plane GEOSAR mission; this article has been inspired by their work.

Author information

Correspondence to Stephen Hobbs.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hobbs, S., Sanchez, J.P. Laplace plane and low inclination geosynchronous radar mission design. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 060305 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9081-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Laplace plane
  • station-keeping
  • geosynchronous
  • inclination
  • GEOSAR