Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

6–100 GHz research progress and challenges from a channel perspective for fifth generation (5G) and future wireless communication

Abstract

Radio frequency is a valuable resource for wireless communication systems. The high-frequency band from 6 GHz up to 100 GHz, where continuous and broad spectra exist, is promising to meet the high spectrum requirement of fifth generation (5G) mobile communication systems by 2020. To date, many groups from academia and industry have contributed to devising approaches to allocate and utilize frequency resources from 6 GHz to 100 GHz for 5G and future wireless communication systems. In this paper, we present global efforts to allocate potential frequency bands and field trial progress from 6 GHz to 100 GHz for 5G. From a channel perspective, we summarize research progress and challenges, including channel measurement platforms and channel parameter analysis, both of which are important to extract the inherent channel characteristics and use a high-frequency band for 5G and future wireless communication systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    ITU-R. IMT vision-framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond 6–100. ITU-R. WP5D TD-0625, 2015

  2. 2

    You X H, Pan Z W, Gao X Q, et al. The 5G mobile communication: the development trends and its emerging key techniques (in Chinese). Sci Sin Inform, 2014, 44: 551–563

  3. 3

    Belbase K, Kim M, Takada J, et al. Study of propagation mechanisms and identification of scattering objects in indoor multipath channels at 11 GHz. In: Proceedings of 9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Lisbon, 2015. 1–4

  4. 4

    3GPP. Channel model for frequency spectrum above 6 GHz 6–100. 3GPP TR 38.900, 2016

  5. 5

    ITU-R Rec. Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods. P.838-3. 2005

  6. 6

    ITU-R Rec. Attenuation by atmospheric gases. P.676-8. 2009

  7. 7

    Zhang J H, Tang P, Tian L. The current and future of high frequency channel modeling. Telecommun Netw Technol, 2016, 3: 10–17

  8. 8

    Kyro M, Ranvier S, Kolmonen V M, et al. Long range wideband channel measurements at 81–86 GHz frequency range. In: Proceedings of 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Barcelona, 2010. 1–5

  9. 9

    Rappaport T S, Sun S, Mayzus R, et al. Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work! IEEE Access, 2013, 1: 335–349

  10. 10

    Rappaport T S, Murdock J N, Gutierrez F. State of the art in 60 GHz integrated circuits and systems for wireless communications. Proc IEEE, 2011, 99: 1390–1436

  11. 11

    Sato K, Manabe T, Ihara T, et al. Measurements of reflection and transmission characteristics of interior structures of office building in the 60 GHz band. IEEE Trans Antenn Propag, 1997, 45: 1783–1792

  12. 12

    Lei M Y, Zhang J H, Tian L. 28 GHz indoor channel measurements and analysis of propagation characteristics. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Washington DC, 2014. 208–212

  13. 13

    Wang H M, Hong W, Chen J X, et al. IEEE 802.11 aj (45GHz): a new very high throughput millimeter-wave WLAN System. China Commun, 2014, 11: 51–62

  14. 14

    Samimi M K, Rappaport T S. 3-D millimeter-wave statistical channel model for 5G wireless system design. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2016, 64: 2207–2225

  15. 15

    Hur S, Cho Y J, Lee J, et al. Synchronous channel sounder using horn antenna and indoor measurements on 28 GHz. In: Proceedings of the InternationalBlack Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom), Odessa, 2014. 83–87

  16. 16

    Cheng X, Yu B, Yang L Q, et al. Communication in the real world: 3D MIMO. IEEE Wirel Commun Mag, 2014, 21: 136–144

  17. 17

    Rappaport T S, Maccartney G R, Samimi M K, et al. Wideband millimeter-wave propagation measurements and channel models for future wireless communication system design. IEEE Wirel Commun, 2015, 63: 3029–3056

  18. 18

    Molisch A F. Wireless Communications. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2011

  19. 19

    Greenstein L J, Michelson D G, Erceg V. Moment-method estimation of the ricean k-factor. IEEE Commun Lett, 1999, 3: 175–176

  20. 20

    Zhang J H. The interdisciplinary research of big data and wireless channel: a cluster-nuclei based channel model. China Commun, 2016, 13: 14–26

  21. 21

    European Commission. Opinion on spectrum related aspects for next-generation wireless systems (5G). RSPG16-032 FINAL. 2016

  22. 22

    Gozalvez J. 5G worldwide developments [mobile radio]. IEEE Veh Technol Mag, 2017, 12: 4–11

  23. 23

    NTTDOCOMO. Technical specification group radio access network: 5G trials with major global vendors. NTT DOCOMO Technical Journal, 2016, 17: 60–69

  24. 24

    Maccartney G R, Sun S, Rappaport T S, et al. Millimeter wave wireless communications: new results for rural connectivity. In: Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on All Things Cellular: Operations, Applications and Challenges, New York, 2016. 31–36

  25. 25

    Obara T, Okuyama T, Inoue Y, et al. Experimental trial of 5G super wideband wireless systems using massive MIMO beamforming and beam tracking control in 28 GHz band. IEICE Trans Commun, 2017, E100-B, doi: 10.1587/transcom.2016FGP0020

  26. 26

    Inoue Y, Yoshioka S, Kepler J. Field experimental trials for 5G mobile communication system using 70 GHz-band. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), San Francisco, 2017. 1–6

  27. 27

    Miao R Q, Tian L, Zheng Y, et al. Indoor office channel measurements and analysis of propagation characteristics at 14 GHz. In: Proceedings of the Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Hong Kong, 2015. 2199–2203

  28. 28

    Hu Z X, Tian L, Tang P, et al. The effects of the rotating step on analyzing the virtual MIMO measurement results at 28 GHz. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Toronto, 2017. 1–5

  29. 29

    Gao X X, Tian L, Tang P, et al. Channel characteristics analysis of angle and clustering in indoor office environment at 28 GHz. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Montreal, 2016. 1–5

  30. 30

    Tang P, Tian L, Zhang J H. Analysis of the millimeter wave channel characteristics for urban micro-cell mobile communication scenario. In: Proceedings of 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Paris, 2017. 2880–2884

  31. 31

    Stuber G L. Principles of Mobile Communication. 3rd ed. New York: Springer Science & Business Media Publishing, 2011

  32. 32

    Belbase K, Kim M, Takada J I. Study of propagation mechanisms and identification of scattering objects in indoor multipath channels at 11 GHz. In: Proceedings of 9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Lisbon, 2015. 1–4

  33. 33

    Liou A E N, Huang H H H, Michelson D G. Issues in the estimation of ricean k-factor from correlated samples. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Montreal, 2006. 1–4

  34. 34

    Lee J, Liang J Y, Park J J, et al. Directional path loss characteristics of large indoor environments with 28 GHz measurements. In: Proceedings of the Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Hong Kong, 2015. 2204–2208

  35. 35

    Tang P, Zhang J H, Molisch A F, et al. Estimation of the ricean k-factor for wideband channel fading. IEEE Trans Antenn Propag, 2017. Submitted

  36. 36

    Molisch A F, Asplund H, Heddergott R, et al. The COST259 directional channel model-part I: overview and methodology. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun, 2006, 5: 3421–3433

  37. 37

    Karadimas P, Allen B, Smith P. Human body shadowing characterization for 60-GHz indoor short-range wireless links. IEEE Antenn Wirel Propag Lett, 2013, 12: 1650–1653

  38. 38

    Manabe T, Miura Y, Ihara T. Effects of antenna directivity and polarization on indoor multipath propagation charac-teristics at 60 GHz. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 1996, 14: 441–448

  39. 39

    Chen X B, Tian L, Tang P, et al. Modelling of human body shadowing based on 28 GHz measurement results. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Montreal, 2016. 1–5

  40. 40

    Kunisch J, Pamp J. Ultra-wideband double vertical knife-edge model for obstruction of a ray by a person. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), Hannover, 2008. 2: 17–20

  41. 41

    Jacob M, Priebe S, Maltsev A, et al. A ray tracing based stochastic human blockage model for the IEEE 802.11ad 60 GHz channel model. In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), Rome, 2011. 3084–3088

Download references

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61322110), National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology (Grant No. 2015ZX03002008), National High-tech R&D Program of China (863) (Grant No. 2015AA01A703), and Doctoral Fund of the Ministry of Education (Grant No. 20130005110001). The measurement platform was partially funded by SAMSUNG, and the data collections were funded by ZTE, Huawei, and CMCC.

Author information

Correspondence to Jianhua Zhang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, J., Tang, P., Tian, L. et al. 6–100 GHz research progress and challenges from a channel perspective for fifth generation (5G) and future wireless communication. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 080301 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-016-9144-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • 5G
  • high frequency band
  • millimeter wave
  • channel
  • measurement