Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

45-GHz and 60-GHz 90 nm CMOS power amplifiers with a fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner

  • 126 Accesses

Abstract

In this paper, 45 GHz and 60 GHz power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power have been successfully designed by using 90 nm CMOS process. The 45 GHz (60 GHz) PA consists of two (four) differential stages. The sizes of transistors have been designed in an appropriate way so as to trade-off gain, efficiency and stability. Due to limited supply voltage and low breakdown voltage of CMOS MOSFET compared with the traditional III-V technologies, the technique of power combining has been applied to achieve a high output power. In particular, a novel 8-way distributed active transformer power combiner has been proposed for realizing such mm-wave PA. The proposed transformer combiner with a fully symmetrical layout can improve its input impedance balance at mm-wave frequency regime significantly. Taking its advantages of this novel transformer based power combiner, our realized 45 GHz (60 GHz) mm-wave PA has achieved the gain of 20.3 dB (16.8 dB), the maximum PAE of 14.5% (13.4%) and the saturated output power of 21 dBm (21 dBm) with the 1.2 V supply voltage.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1

    Kang K, Lin F, Pham D D, et al. A 60-GHz OOK receiver with an on-chip antenna in 90 nm CMOS. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2010, 45: 1720–1731

  2. 2

    Yao T, Gordon M Q, Tang K K W, et al. Algorithmic design of CMOS LNAs and PAs for 60-GHz radio. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2007, 42: 1044–1057

  3. 3

    Law C Y, Pham A V. A high-gain 60 GHz power amplifier with 20 dBm output power in 90 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2010. 426–427

  4. 4

    Wei T, Carley L R, Ricketts D S. A 0.7 W fully integrated 42 GHz power amplifier with 10% PAE in 0.13µm SiGe. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2013. 142–143

  5. 5

    Martineau B, Knopik V, Siligaris A, et al. A 53-to-68 GHz 18 dBm power amplifier with an 8-way combiner in standard 65 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2010. 428–429

  6. 6

    Bhat R, Chakrabarti A, Krishnaswamy H. Large-scale power-combining and linearization in watt-class mmWave CMOS power amplifiers. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Seattle, 2013. 283–286

  7. 7

    Hsiao Y H, Tsai Z M, Liao H C, et al. Millimeter-wave CMOS power amplifiers with high output power and wideband performances. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 4520–4533

  8. 8

    Oh J, Ku B, Hong S. A 77-GHz CMOS power amplifier with a parallel power combiner based on transmission-line transformer. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 2662–2669

  9. 9

    Yeh J F, Tsai J H, Huang T W. A 60-GHz power amplifier design using dual-radial symmetric architecture in 90-nm low-power CMOS. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 1280–1290

  10. 10

    Agah A, Dabag H, Hanafi B, et al. A 34% PAE, 18.6 dBm 42–45 GHz stacked power amplifier in 45 nm SOI CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Montreal, 2012. 57–60

  11. 11

    Dabag H T, Hanafi B, Golcuk F, et al. Analysis and design of stacked-FET millimeter-wave power amplifiers. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 1543–1556

  12. 12

    Chakrabarti A, Krishnaswamy H. High-power high-efficiency class-E-like stacked mmWave PAs in SOI and Bulk CMOS: theory and implementation. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2014, 62: 1686–1704

  13. 13

    Chakrabarti A, Krishnaswamy H. High power, high efficiency stacked mmWave Class-E-like power amplifiers in 45 nm SOI CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, San Jose, 2012. 1–4

  14. 14

    Pornpromlikit S, Dabag H T, Hanafi B, et al. A Q-band amplifier implemented with stacked 45-nm CMOS FETs. In: Proceedings of IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium, Waikoloa, 2011. 175–178

  15. 15

    Zhao Y, Long J R, Spirito M. A 60 GHz-band 20 dBm power amplifier with 20% peak PAE. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Baltimore, 2011. 1–4

  16. 16

    Chen J, Niknejad A M. A compact 1V 18.6 dBm 60 GHz power amplifier in 65 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2011. 432–433

  17. 17

    He Y, Li L, Reynaert P. 60 GHz power amplifier with distributed active transformer and local feedback. In: Proceedings of IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Sevilla, 2010. 314–317

  18. 18

    Zhao D, Kulkarni S, Reynaert P. A 60 GHz dual-mode power amplifier with 17.4 dBm output power and 29.3% PAE in 40-nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Bordeaux, 2012. 337–340

  19. 19

    Kulkarni S, Reynaert P. A push-pull mm-wave power amplifier with <0.8? AM-PM distortion in 40 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2014. 252–253

  20. 20

    Larie A, Kerherve E, Martineau B, et al. A 1.2 V 20 d Bm 60 GHz power amplifier with 32.4 dB Gain and 20% Peak PAE in 65 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Venice, 2014. 175–178

  21. 21

    Wang K Y, Chang T Y, Wang C K. A 1 V 19.3 dBm 79 GHz power amplifier in 65 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2012. 260–262

  22. 22

    Lai J W, Valdes-Garcia A. A 1 V 17.9 dBm 60 GHz power amplifier in standard 65 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2010. 424–425

  23. 23

    Zhao D, Reynaert P. 14.1 A 0.9 V 20.9 dBm 22.3%-PAE E-band power amplifier with broadband parallel-series power combiner in 40 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, 2014. 248–249

  24. 24

    Aloui S, Leite B, Demirel N, et al. High-gain and linear 60-GHz power amplifier with a thin digital 65-nm CMOS technology. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 2425–2437

  25. 25

    Thian M, Tiebout M, Buchanan N B, et al. A 76–84 GHz SiGe power amplifier array employing low-loss four-way differential combining transformer. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2013, 61: 931–938

  26. 26

    Shirinfar F, Nariman M, Sowlati T, et al. A fully integrated 22.6 dBm mm-Wave PA in 40 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Seattle, 2013. 279–282

  27. 27

    Pfeiffer U R, Goren D. A 23-dBm 60-GHz distributed active transformer in a silicon process technology. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2007, 55: 857–865

  28. 28

    Guo K, Huang P, Kang K. A 60-GHz 1.2 V 21 dBm power amplifier with a fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner in 90 nm CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Tampa, 2014. 1–3

  29. 29

    Huang P, Guo K, Yu Y, et al. A 21.08 dBm Q-band power amplifier in 90-nm CMOS process. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Wireless Symposium, Xi’an, 2014. 1–4

  30. 30

    Wang T, Mitomo T, Ono N, et al. A 55–67 GHz power amplifier with 13.6% PAE in 65 nm standard CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Baltimore, 2011. 1–4

  31. 31

    Zhao J, Bassi M, Bevilacqua A, et al. A 40–67 GHz power amplifier with 13 dBm PSAT and 16% PAE in 28 nm CMOS LP. In: Proceedings of IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Venice, 2014. 179–182

  32. 32

    Medra A, Giannini V, Guermandi D, et al. A 79 GHz variable gain low-noise amplifier and power amplifier in 28 nm CMOS operating up to 120?C. In: Proceedings of IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Venice, 2014. 183–186

  33. 33

    Ogunnika O T, Valdes-Garcia A. A 60 GHz Class-E tuned power amplifier with PAE >25% in 32 nm SOI CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Montreal, 2012. 65–68

  34. 34

    Aoki I, Kee S D, Rutledge D B, et al. Distributed active transformer-a new power-combining and impedancetransformation technique. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2002, 50: 316–331

  35. 35

    Aoki I, Kee S D, Rutledge D B, et al. Fully integrated CMOS power amplifier design using the distributed activetransformer architecture. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2002, 37: 371–383

  36. 36

    Li Y, Li Z, Uyar O, et al. High-throughput signal component separator for asymmetric multi-level outphasing power amplifiers. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2013, 48: 369–380

  37. 37

    Zhao D, Reynaert P. An E-band power amplifier with broadband parallel-series power combiner in 40-nm CMOS. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2015, 63: 683–690

  38. 38

    Zhao D. A 40-nm CMOS E-band 4-way power amplifier with neutralized bootstrapped cascode amplifier and optimum passive circuits. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2015, 63: 1–7

  39. 39

    Kang K, Brinkhoff J, Shi J, et al. On-chip coupled transmission line modeling for millimeter-wave applications using four-port measurements. IEEE Trans Adv Pack, 2010, 33: 153–159

  40. 40

    Kang K, Nan L, Rustagi S C, et al. A Wideband scalable and SPICE-compatible model for on-chip interconnects up to 110 GHz. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2008, 56: 942–951

  41. 41

    Pozar D M. Microwave and RF Wireless Systems. Hoboken: John Wiley, 2001. 1–384

  42. 42

    Huang P, Chen Y, Guo K, et al. Design and modeling of an on-chip asymmetric tap balun for CMOS millimeter-wave circuits. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Wireless Symposium, Xi’an, 2014. 1–4

  43. 43

    Zhao D, Reynaert P. A 60-GHz Dual-mode class AB power amplifier in 40-nm CMOS. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2013, 48: 2323–2337

  44. 44

    Zhao D, Kulkarni S, Reynaert P. A 60-GHz outphasing transmitter in 40-nm CMOS. IEEE J Solid-State Circ, 2012, 47: 3172–3183

  45. 45

    Kim J, Dabag H, Asbeck P, et al. Q-band and W-band power amplifiers in 45-nm CMOS SOI. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech, 2012, 60: 1870–1877

  46. 46

    Dabag H T, Kim J, Larson L E, et al. A 45-GHz SiGe HBT amplifier at greater than 25% efficiency and 30 mW output power. In: Proceedings of IEEE Bipolar/bicmos Circuits and Technology Meeting, Atlanta, 2011. 25–28

  47. 47

    Agah A, Dabag H, Hanafi B, et al. A 34% PAE, 18.6 dBm 42–45 GHz stacked power amplifier in 45 nm SOI CMOS. In: Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Montreal, 2012. 57–60

  48. 48

    Wei T, Carley L R, Ricketts D S. A Q-band SiGe power amplifier with 17.5 dBm saturated output power and 26% peak PAE. In: Proceedings of IEEE Bipolar/bicmos Circuits and Technology Meeting, Atlanta, 2011. 146–149

  49. 49

    Tsai J H, Lee Y L, Huang T W, et al. A 90-nm CMOS broadband and miniature Q-band balanced medium power amplifier. In: Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Honolulu, 2007. 1129–1132

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331006, 61422104), National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grand No. 2016ZX03001015-004), and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863) (Grand No. 2015AA01A704).

Author information

Correspondence to Kai Kang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiang, Z., Guo, K., Huang, P. et al. 45-GHz and 60-GHz 90 nm CMOS power amplifiers with a fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 080303 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-016-9102-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • millimeter wave
  • power amplifier
  • CMOS
  • transformer power combiner
  • 45 GHz
  • 60 GHz