This paper proposes three-dimensional (3D) non-stationary wideband circular geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs) for high-speed train (HST) tunnel scenarios. Considering single-bounced (SB) and multiple-bounced (MB) components from the tunnel’s internal surfaces, a theoretical channel model is first established. Then, the corresponding simulation model is developed using the method of equal volume (MEV) to calculate discrete angular parameters. Based on the proposed 3D GBSMs, important time-variant statistical properties are investigated, such as the temporal autocorrelation function (ACF), spatial cross-correlation function (CCF), and space-Doppler (SD) power spectrum density (PSD). Results indicate that all statistical properties of the simulation model, verified by simulation results, can match well those of the theoretical model. The statistical properties of the proposed 3D GBSMs are further validated by relevant measurement data, demonstrating the flexibility and utility of our proposed tunnel GBSMs.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Wang C X, Wu S B, Bai L, et al. Recent advances and future challenges for massive MIMO channel measurements and models. Sci China Inf Sci, 2016, 59: 021301
Ai B, He R, Zhong Z D, et al. Radio wave propagation scene partitioning for high-speed rails. Int J Antenna Propag, 2012, 2012: 1–7
Ghazal A, Wang C X, Ai B, et al. A non-stationary wideband MIMO channel model for high-mobility intelligent transportation systems. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst, 2015, 16: 885–897
Hrovat A, Kandus G, Javornic T. A survey of radio propagation modeling for tunnels. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor, 2014, 16: 658–669
Cichon D J, Becker T C, Wiesbeck W. Determination of time-variant radio links in high-speed train tunnels by ray optical modeling. In: Proceedings of Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, California, 1995. 508–511
Guan K, Ai B, Zhong Z D, et al. The influence of scattering from traffic signs in vehicle-to-x communications. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2016, 65: 5835–5849
Emslie A G, Lagace R L, Strong P F. Theory of the propagation of UHF radio waves in coal mine tunnels. IEEE Trans Antenna Propag, 1975, 23: 192–205
Wang H W, Yu F R, Zhu L, et al. Finite-state markov modeling for wireless channels in tunnel communication-based train control systems. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst, 2014, 15: 1083–1090
Ge X, Tu S, Han T, et al. Energy efficiency of small cell backhaul networks based on Gauss-Markov mobile models. IET Netw, 2015, 4: 158–167
Wang Y H, Zhang Y P, Kouyoumjian R G. Ray-optical prediction of radio-wave propagation characteristics in tunnel environments part 1: theory, part 2: analysis and measurements. IEEE Trans Antenna Propag, 1998, 46: 1328–1345
Porrat D. Radio propagation in hallways and streets for UHF communications. Dissertation for Ph.D. Degree. Stanford: Stanford University, 2002
Laakmann K D, Steier W H. Waveguides: characteristic modes of hollow rectangular dielectric waveguides. Appl Opt, 1976, 15: 1334–1340
Dudley D G. Wireless propagation in circular tunnels. IEEE Trans Antenna Propag, 2005, 53: 435–441
Sun Z, Akyildiz I F. Channel modeling and analysis for wireless networks in underground mines and road tunnels. IEEE Trans Commun, 2010, 58: 1758–1768
Guan K, Ai B, Fricke A, et al. Excess propagation loss modeling of semi-closed obstacles for intelligent transportation systems. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst, 2016, 17: 2171–2181
Liu Y, Wang C X, Ghazal A, et al. A multi-mode waveguide tunnel channel model for high-speed train wireless communication systems. In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), Lisbon, 2015. 1–5
Avazov N, Patzold M. A novel wideband MIMO car-to-car channel model based on a geometrical semi-circular tunnel scattering model. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2016, 65: 1070–1082
Yuan Y, Wang C X, Cheng X, et al. 3D geometry-based stochastic models for non-isotropic MIMO vehicle-to-vehicle channels. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun, 2014, 13: 298–309
Wang J, Zhu H, Gomes N J. Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains. IEEE J Sel Area Commun, 2012, 30: 675–683
Briso-Rodriguez C, Cruz J M, Alonso J I. Measurements and modeling of distributed antenna systems in railway tunnels. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2007, 56: 2870–2879
Ge X, Qiu Y, Chen J, et al. Wireless fractal cellular networks. IEEE Wirel Commun, 2016, 23: 110–119
Guan K, Zhong Z D, Briso-Rodriguez C, et al. Measurements of distributed antenna systems at 2.4 GHz in a realistic subway tunnel environment. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2012, 61: 834–837
Guan K, Zhong Z, Ai B, et al. Propagation mechanism modelling in the near region of circular tunnels. IET Microw Antenna Propag, 2012, 6: 355–360
Wu S, Wang C X, Aggoune H, et al. A non-stationary 3D wideband twin-cluster model for 5G massive MIMO channels. IEEE J Sel Area Commun, 2014, 32: 1207–1218
Kyosti P, Meinila J, Hentila L, et al. WINNER D1.1.2 WINNER II channel models ver 1.1, 2007
Li J X, Zhou Y P, Zhang J, et al. Radio channel measurements and analysis at 2.4/5 GHz in subway tunnels. J China Commun, 2015, 12: 36–45
Cai X, Yin X F, Cheng X, et al. An empirical random-cluster model for subway channels based on passive measurements in UMTS. IEEE Trans Commun, 2016, 64: 3563–3575
This work was supported by International S&T Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2014DFA11640), EU H2020 ITN 5G Wireless Project (Grant No. 641985), EU FP7 QUICK Project (Grant No. PIRSES-GA-2013-612652), EPSRC TOUCAN Project (Grant No. EP/L020009/1), China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201506450042), and in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61210002), Hubei Provincial Science and Technology Department (Grant No. 2016AHB006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2015XJGH011).
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Liu, Y., Wang, C., Lopez, C. et al. 3D non-stationary wideband circular tunnel channel models for high-speed train wireless communication systems. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 082304 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-016-9004-4
- statistical properties
- tunnel channel model
- channel measurement