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Circulate shifted OFDM chirp waveform diversity design with digital beamforming for MIMO SAR

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Abstract

Waveform diversity design has always been the key to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems, and it is known that synthetic integral side lobe ratio (SISLR) is a more optimal indicator than the integral side lobe ratio (ISLR) to evaluate the orthogonality between different MIMO SAR waveforms. This paper presents proof that it is difficult to obtain the SISLR of an existing waveform such that it is sufficiently low to achieve high SNR for SAR imaging. Thus, it is necessary to find a way to separate these MIMO SAR waveforms in other domains, for example, a spatial domain by digital beamforming (DBF). Learning from Krieger’s idea of short-term shift-orthogonal waveforms and using joint time-frequency transforms (Gabor transform) to prove that for most existing SAR waveforms cyclic shift is a good operation with which to generate short-term shift-orthogonal waveforms. This paper presents the designs of four circulate shifted OFDM chirp waveforms, which have a much lower SISLR and retain all the advantages of the classical chirp waveform such as a large time-bandwidth product, constant amplitude, implementation simplicity, and good Doppler tolerance.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61331015). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, time, and suggestions to improve the quality of this paper.

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Correspondence to Zenghui Zhang.

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Liu, S., Zhang, Z. & Yu, W. Circulate shifted OFDM chirp waveform diversity design with digital beamforming for MIMO SAR. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 60, 102307 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-016-9003-9

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Keywords

  • MIMO SAR
  • Gabor transform
  • cyclic shift
  • OFDM chirp waveform
  • synthetic integral side lobe ratio (SISLR)