Impact of RF mismatches on the performance of massive MIMO systems with ZF precoding



Thanks to the channel reciprocity, the time division duplex (TDD) operation is more preferred in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Avoiding the heavy feedback of downlink channel state information (CSI) from the user equipment (UE) to the base station (BS), the uplink CSI can be exploited for the downlink precoding. However, due to the mismatches of the radio frequency (RF) circuits at both sides of the link, the whole communication channels are usually not symmetric in practical systems. This paper is focused on the RF mismatches at the UEs and the BS for the multi-user massive MIMO systems with zero forcing (ZF) precoding. The closed-form expressions of the ergodic sum-rates are derived for evaluating the impact of RF mismatches on the system performance. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the RF mismatches at the UEs only lead to a negligible performance loss. However, it is imperative to perform reciprocity calibration at the BS, because the RF mismatches at the BS contribute to the inter-user interference (IUI) and result in a severe system performance degradation.


为了避免下行导频和用户反馈的开销 大规模MIMO系统利用TDD通信模式进行数据传输。这样根据上下行信道的互易性,基站可以利用上行信道信息来进行下行预编码的设计。然而收发两端射频电路增益的失配会破坏信道的互易性。基于迫零预编码,分别分析了基站端和用户端射频电路失配对系统性能的影响,得到可达和速率的闭式解。用户端的射频电路失配对系统性能的影响可以忽略,而基站端的射频电路失配会造成严重的用户间干扰,使得系统性能大大下降。

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Correspondence to Dongming Wang.

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Wei, H., Wang, D., Wang, J. et al. Impact of RF mismatches on the performance of massive MIMO systems with ZF precoding. Sci. China Inf. Sci. 59, 1–14 (2016).

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  • massive MIMO
  • RF mismatch
  • TDD operation
  • channel reciprocity
  • antenna calibration


  • 022302


  • 大规模MIMO
  • 射频失配
  • 时分双工
  • 信道互易性
  • 天线校准